Autoimmunity and Inflamation

SPECIAL ISSUE

Autoimmunity and Inflamation

CLINICAL RESEARCH ARTICLES

Ammouri W1, Harmouche H1, Khibri Hajar1, Maamar Mouna1, Mezalek Tazi Zoubida1, Adnaoui Mohamed1

1Internal Medicine department, Unité d’Hématologie clinique, Ibn Sina Hospital, University Mohamed V of Medicine, Rabat, Morocco

Abstract

Macrophage activation syndrome can be primary with a genetic etiology, or secondary, associated with malignancies, infections or systemic diseases. Its a severe and potentially life-threatening complication of autoimmune diseases. The incidence of MAS among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is not well known, as most of the previous studies were limited to a small number of case series or case reports. In recent years it has been suggested that macrophage activation syndrome in systemic lupus erythemaosus may be underrecognized because it can mimic the clinical features of the underlying disease or be confused with an infectious complication. The diagnosis of macrophage activation sydrome in adults is supported by hyperferritinemia (higher than 2000 ng/ml), and/or splenomegaly, pronounced cytopenias, hypofibrinogenemia, characteristic cytokine profile and hypertriglyceridemia. In the case of systemic lupus erythematosus flare, hyerferritinemia is the strongest indicator to differentiate them from MAS. So far, no validated and universally embraced diagnostic criteria for macrophage activation syndrome in adult secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus are available. It is important to know the parameters that can guide the clinician towards the diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome in adult with systemic lupus. Early diagnosis and intensive therapy are essential in improving clinical outcomes. Hence, we decided to write this mini- review to focus on the demographic data, on the pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical and laboratory manifestations, treatments, and outcomes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus associated macrophage activation syndrome.

By Dr. Jullia Barbado Ajo – Director of the Autoimmune Disease Unit, University Hospital Rio Hortega, Valladolid Spain