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A historical evaluation from quarantine to compartmental model: from Ottoman Empire in 1830 to the Turkish Republic at 2020 and from cholera to COVID-19

Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Ottoman Empire’s first experienced quarantine and the Turkey Republic’s used compartmental models within the quarantine.
Method: This study was conducted as a review to explore quarantine procedures applied from Ottoman Empire to the present time in the Turkey Republic. For this purpose, we collected pieces of evidence from historical texts, articles, online reports, and books to websites. The reviews findings were assessed chronologically.
Results: There were findings about the Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic. The first data was included in the quarantine directives of the Sultan II. Mahmud (1808-1839) for cholera. Moreover, the Ottoman Empire continued to fight epidemics such as the plague, cholera, smallpox, malaria, and Spanish flu. After founded, the Turkish Republic state (1923) has also encountered some infectious diseases (cholera, COVID-19) and used compartmental models within quarantine with medical measures. However, while quarantine applications were made more effective with technology, COVID-19 was held back with the old quarantine application principles at short intervals. On the other hand “compartmental models within quarantine” concepts and practices were carried out in many countries instead of only quarantine and after a while implicitly followed by many countries for economic reasons; this system was introduced, which caused controversy for economic reasons, including Turkey.
Conclusion: Infectious diseases not only threaten the health of people but also threatens socio-economic life and even cultural and religious practices. For this reason, its area of influence covers a wider area, the world in all other disasters. In spite of all scientific and technological developments, infectious diseases can still not be brought under control in a short time and measures have started to evolve from quarantine, social distance practice, and herd immunity systems. This study offers the opportunity to reconsider and think of quarantine practices from past to present.
Key words: Quarantine, pandemic, lockdown, controlled social life, Turkey, Ottoman Empire.