Title: Total Hip Arthroplasty: How far we have come, Where we stand, and Where we need to go

The treatment of hip arthritis has evolved from rudimentary surgery to modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) over the past three centuries. Initial treatment included excision arthroplasty, which developed into interpositional arthroplasty and further advanced into a prosthetic replacement in the 1900s. Sir John Charnley introduced low-friction total hip arthroplasty in the 1960s. Since then, researchers and clinicians have worked endlessly towards advancing the THA in terms of bearing surfaces, implant designs, and surgical technique, which has improved implant survival, wear resistance, mechanical stability, and clinical outcomes. THA is considered one of the most successful surgical interventions ever developed and is named an “operation of the century.” It provides highly satisfactory results and restores the quality of life of patients crippled with end-stage hip arthritis. This review aims to focus on the evolution history of THA, current trends and techniques, and future directions to improve this procedure further.

Keywords: Total hip arthroplasty or replacement, implant design, bearing surfaces, surgical techniques