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Home  >  Medical Research Archives  >  Issue 149  > Helicobacter pylori Immune Response in Children Versus Adults
Published in the Medical Research Archives
Dec 2022 Issue

Helicobacter pylori Immune Response in Children Versus Adults

Published on Dec 21, 2022




  1. pylori is perhaps the most prevalent human pathogen worldwide and infects almost half of the world's population. Despite the decreasing prevalence of infection overall, it is significant in developing countries. Most infections are acquired in childhood and persist for a lifetime unless treated. Children are often asymptomatic and often develop a tolerogenic immune response that includes T regulatory cells and their products, immunosuppressive cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-10, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). This contrasts to the gastric immune response seen in H. pylori-infected adults, where the response is mainly inflammatory, with predominant Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as, inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17. Therefore, compared to adults, infected children generally have limited gastric inflammation and peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori surreptitiously subverts immune defenses to persist in the human gastric mucosa for decades. The chronic infection might result in clinically significant diseases in adults, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This review compares the infection in children and adults and highlights the H. pylori virulence mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis and immune evasion.


Author info

Victor Reyes

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