Article Test

Home  >  Medical Research Archives  >  Issue 149  > Genome wide hypomethylation and youth-associated DNA gap reduction promoting DNA damage and senescence-associated pathogenesis
Published in the Medical Research Archives
Dec 2023 Issue

Genome wide hypomethylation and youth-associated DNA gap reduction promoting DNA damage and senescence-associated pathogenesis

Published on Dec 26, 2023




Background: Age-associated epigenetic alteration is the underlying cause of DNA damage in aging cells. Two types of youth-associated DNA-protection epigenetic marks, global methylation, and youth-associated genomic stabilization DNA gap (youth-DNA-gap) reduce when cell ages. The epigenomic mark reduction promotes DNA damage and accelerates aging hallmarks. While DNA hypomethylation destabilizes DNA by several mechanisms, the DNA sequence around the youth-DNA-gap is hypermethylated. Therefore, the genomic instability mechanisms underlying DNA hypomethylation and youth-DNA-gap reduction are linked.

Results: DNA gap prevents DNA damage by relieving the torsion forces caused by a twisted wave during DNA strand separation by transcription or replication. When the cells begin to age, hypomethylation and youth-DNA-gap reduction can occur as consequences of the efflux of intranuclear HMGB1. The methylated DNA gaps are formed by several proteins. Box A of HMGB1 possesses a molecular scissor role in producing youth-DNA-gaps. So the lack of a gap-producing role of HMGB1 results in a youth-DNA-gap reduction. The histone deacetylation role of SIRT1, an aging prevention protein, prevents DNA ends of youth-DNA-gaps from being recognized as pathologic DNA breaks. Youth-DNA-gaps are methylated and determined genome distribution by AGO4, an effector protein in RNA-directed DNA methylation. The lack of intranuclear HMGB1 promotes global hypomethylation due to two subsequent mechanisms. First is the loss of AGO4-methylating DNA. The other is the accumulation of DNA damage due to lacking HMGB1-produced DNA gap promoting DNA demethylation while undergoing DNA repair. DNA torsion due to youth-DNA-gap reduction increases DNA damage and, consequently, the DNA damage response (DDR). Persistent DDR promotes cellular senescence. Accumulating senescent cells leads to the deterioration of the structure and function of the human body. Rejuvenating DNA (RED) by adding DNA protection epigenetic marks using genomic stability molecule (GEM) such as box A of HMGB1 increases DNA durability, limits DNA damage, rejuvenates senescence cells, and improves organ structure and function deterioration due to aging.

Conclusion: Reducing youth-associated epigenetic marks is degenerative diseases' primary molecular pathogenesis mechanism. REDGEM is a new therapeutic strategy inhibiting the upstream molecular aging process that will revolutionize the treatment of DNA damage or age-associated diseases and conditions.

Author info

Papitchaya Watcharanurak, Apiwat Mutirangura

Have an article to submit?

Submission Guidelines

Submit a manuscript

Become a member

Call for papers

Have a manuscript to publish in the society's journal?