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Challenges and Opportunities in Asthma

Challenges and Opportunities in Asthma

Daria Lahoda

Abstract

Diseases of the respiratory tract occupy one of the leading places among pathologies in people of working age in the world. According to the data of world studies, it can be considered that these two comorbidities are mutually aggravating, but scientists do not have a unanimous opinion about whether this is a simple coincidence or whether these pathologies are pathogenetically related. There is considerable evidence that asthma patients do not achieve adequate asthma control worldwide. Yes, according to Maria Sandra Magnoni et al. 77.8% of patients with asthma have an uncontrolled course of asthma, although 68.4% of them believe that they have sufficient asthma control, and their treatment does not require correction. Therefore, taking into account all of the above and taking into account the low level of asthma control in patients with comorbid pathology who often suffer from bacterial and viral diseases, we believe that a more detailed study of the immunological status of these individuals is necessary in order to optimize treatment and prevention measures. Aim: to investigate the effectiveness of alternative ways of asthma control in patients with bronchial asthma against the background of overweight or obesity. Materials and methods. At the I stage, 255 patients with BA were examined. According to the study design, patients were selected according to the “inclusion/exclusion” criteria at this stage. The study was randomized. Allocation of patients into groups was carried out by the method of simple randomization with elements of stratification. Groups are statistically significant. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using parametric and non-parametric analysis methods. Resalts. Overweight or obese patients had a more severe course of bronchial asthma than patients with a normal body mass index. Overweight or obese patients were found to have higher levels of systemic inflammation, namely eosinophilic cationic protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, than patients with a normal body mass index. In addition, a close direct correlation was established between the severity of the course of bronchial asthma and indicators of eosinophil cationic protein (r=0.97; p˂0.001). After pharmacological correction, there was an increase in asthma control in patients with different severity of the course (р˂0.001; p˂0.001; p˂0.001, respectively), a decrease in the frequency of exacerbations (p˂0.05), a reduction in the number of hospitalizations (p˂0, 05) and the number of acute respiratory diseases (p˂0.05) in patients with bronchial asthma against the background of excess body weight or obesity. The use of the developed treatment-prophylactic complex using the drug bacterial lysate and inosine pranobex together with training in the Asthma School and standard treatment contributes to increasing asthma control and compliance with the doctor, reducing the number of exacerbations and hospitalizations per year in patients with bronchial asthma against the background overweight or obesity.

Guadalupe García Elorriaga, Maximino Miranda-García, Guillermo Del Rey-Pineda, Luisa María Sánchez-Zamorano, Eduardo César Lazcano-Ponce, and Eduardo Salazar-Martínez

Abstract

Previous report shows relationship between C. pneumonie and Asthma. In this study, we assessed the association between exposure to C. pneumoniae infection and the risk of bronchial asthma in adolescents in the State of Morelos, Mexico. An analysis was performed on a population-based cohort study of 80 adolescents with respiratory symptoms of asthma defined by ISAAC and 202 healthy adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. The information was collected twice from questionnaires, anthropometry, and sampling. Excessive weight gain was determined by calculating body mass index, and exposure to the specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA was detected by microimmunofluorescence. The geometric means were calculated for titers of C. pneumoniae. The odds ratio was used across multiple models. The results showed that the exposure to C. pneumoniae was very high in the study population (67.2%). All immunoglobulins were significantly increased in patients with asthma symptoms compared with the healthy population (17% for IgG, 34% for IgM, and 52% for IgA). In multiple models, the IgM and IgA immunoglobulins were found to be associated with asthma (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.2 and OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.8, respectively). Our study reflects a high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae in the population; this seroprevalence is higher in young people with asthma. Specific immunoglobulins to C. pneumoniae are associated with IgM and IgA. The epidemiological significance of our results influences the timely monitoring and management of infections acquired at an early age that persist, or recur, for much of the juvenile life. Additional studies are needed to validate our findings.

Yousser Mohammad, MD, PhD and Basim Dubaybo

Abstract

The Global Asthma Network (GAN) report issued in 2022 and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) report of 2023 emphasize challenges and difficulties faced by health workers in managing asthma in Low- and Middle-income countries (LMICs). Among the many reasons for these difficulties are insufficient knowledge of health workers of management guidelines, and lack of medical resources especially inhaler medications1,2,3. When available in limited amounts, these resources are prohibitively expensive4,5,6. These reports did not address the impact of disaster on asthma care. In this article, we aim to highlight this issue, hoping that future international asthma reports will take this aspect into consideration.

When disasters such as war and earthquakes occur in LMIC, several aspects of asthma care are negatively impacted. First, challenges in asthma management are compounded by difficulties related to displacement, overcrowding in shelters, immigration of health care workers (HCW), damage to health facilities, limited referral capacity to specialists, and limited availability of expensive inhalers4,5,6. Second, governments face logistical challenges. While the immediate need may be to provide emergency needs,6,7 health facilities should secure medications to provide care according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines7. Third, asthma research and data collection are hampered.Digital health could be a solution9,10.

It is therefore imperative that we develop suitable asthma management programs applicable to zones in turmoil4,11,12.

We conducted a literature search on challenges in asthma management in zones of turmoil. We used the following search keywords and phrases: asthma and war, asthma and turmoil, asthma and earthquakes, and asthma and disasters. We reviewed all publications that relate to this topic that appeared in the literature between 2014 and 2023. Based on this review and analysis, we list several lessons learned, conclusions and recommendations.

Razia Sultana Mansoor Ghani, Ann Smith, Shazia Ashraf, and Shakeela Bashir

Abstract

Background: Bronchial sensitive individuals are prone to develop many health issues from airborne allergens, and viral and bacterial respiratory infections. Studies have shown that airborne allergen causes allergies and asthma in the susceptible population. Some other environmental factors such as tobacco smoke, air pollution and diet have also been linked to an increased risk for the onset of asthma. The burden of asthma is increasing day by day but the exact etiology of asthma is yet unknown. Some genetic predisposition and environmental factors are thought to play a role in causation of disease, yet how they interact to cause asthma it is still being investigated.

Methods & Study Design: A Cross- sectional analytical study design was used to determine the various environmental factors that can trigger asthma and their association with asthma control among school aged asthmatic children, 4-12 years age. A questionnaire was used to find out various environmental factors that can trigger asthma attacks. Data was represented in the form of tables and the chi square test was used to determine the association of various environmental factors with asthma control.

Results: A total of 196 asthmatic children and their parents participated in this study. The chi-square test showed that female parents control asthma more effectively as compared to male parents. The majority of parents 118 (60.2%) were living in urban areas, 180 (91.8%) parents had low income adequacy level, 119 (60.7%) parents’ homes had 1-2 rooms, and 118 (60.2%) homes were congested/poor ventilated. Environmental factors had a direct link with asthma. Children exposure to passive-smoking 106 (54.08%), exercise (p =.035*), sports (p =.015*), cold weather (p =.002*), seasonal allergy (p =.002*), allergic rhinitis (p =.004*), small homes (p =.008*) and, uneducated parents (no education or primary only) (p =.035*) are factors that are associated with high asthma rates.

Conclusion: Asthma is influenced by environmental factors. By modifying environmental factors, we can improve the number of asthma episodes among asthmatic children.

MUHAMMED ANAS AYOOB, Soumya Mol Mohammed Ismail, and Dr. Prasad

Abstract

Background: The most crucial step in achieving and keeping asthma under control is to lessen the inflammation in the airways. Nitric oxide fractional exhaled (FeNO) levels have been utilised as an indicator of airway inflammation. Uncertainty regarding the potential function and properties of exhaled fractional nitric oxide in asthma management.

Objective: To determine whether FeNO and Asthma Control Test (ACT) can objectively assess asthma control in adult patients and identify any potential relationships between FeNO and both the ACT score and the spirometry data of patients. Also determine their use in reducing the dose of inhaled steroids.

Methods: The design of the study was a systematic review. A qualitative research methodology based on an analysis of previously published materials. 

Results: This study thoroughly examined the literature on the Asthma Control Test and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide assessment of asthma control in adult patients. Finally, 16 scientific studies were analysed. The highest variations in FeNO values during diagnosis were significantly linked with FeNO levels at diagnosis during conventional asthma treatment. Evaluating adherence and FeNO response to monitored inhaled corticosteroid treatment may prevent the needless progression to biologic therapy in asthmatic patients with high Type-2 biomarker levels. There is a close connection between the ACT score and the treatment modifications as well as the measurements of lung function. FeNO may be able to detect poor asthma control; however, it cannot substitute for clinical judgment and may only be beneficial in a subset of asthmatics. The average and percentage variation of standards following asthma treatment did not show any significant relationship between FeNO levels and various other factors are related (expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or ACT scoring), however, there were strong positive correlations between ACT scores and FEV1.

Conclusion: Research revealed a highly significant link between the level of FeNO at diagnosis and the biggest variations in FeNO readings after diagnosis. Using FeNO as a supplementary non-invasive method for assessing asthma control may be effective in both steroid-naive asthmatics and those who are being treated with steroids.

Tassalapa Daengsuwan, MD and Thitaya Sangsawang, MD

Abstract

Background: Monitoring of lung function is necessary to detect irreversible airway obstruction in both asthma and obesity. Impulse oscillometry (IOS), a novo non-invasive equipment, is increasing popularity to measure airway resistance in young children worldwide.

Aims:  To compare IOS parameters among Thai asthmatic children and Thai obese children with and without asthma.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 participants, aged 4-15 years old. Forty children were in each group (asthma, obesity, and obesity with asthma). All volunteers were consented to measure airway resistance by IOS technique (Jaeger, Germany).

Results: Seventy-three percent of patients were male with the mean age at 8.8 + 2.61 years old. Mean X5 was found normal in childhood obesity (-0.13) when compared to children with asthma (-0.23) and obesity with asthma (-0.19) (p < 0.001 and 0.013 respectively). The cut-off value of X5, according to ROC curve, for predicting asthma in obese patients was -0.16 kPa/L/s with 70% sensitivity, 70% specificity and 70% accuracy (AUC= 0.69). However, with the bronchodilator effect (adjusted by duration of asthma control), we found significant higher percentage change of IOS parameters, including resonant frequency, area of reactance and R5-R20, in asthma (Fres -24.57 + 15.82, AX -58.28 + 13.37, R5-R20 -51.32 + 20.13) than in asthma with obesity (Fres -13.77 + 16.42, AX -43.35 + 21.4, R5-R20 -34.72 + 18.21), (p = 0.014, 0.004, 0.002 respectively).

Conclusions: X5 and percentage changes after bronchodilator of Fres, AX, and R5-R20 are useful parameters to differentiate airway dysfunction in asthmatic children from obese children.

Matti Korppi

Abstract

The risk of asthma and lung function reduction is increased in children who have presented with wheezing associated with respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Three prospective cohort studies consisting of patients hospitalized for infection-associated wheezing at <24 months of age, which started in Finland and Sweden in the 1980`s and 1990`s, have reported outcomes at >25 years of age. These three cohorts are even globally the only cohorts consisting of early-childhood wheezers followed prospectively until adulthood. Initially, the studies were not controlled, and the risk of asthma and reduced lung function and the risk factors in question were assessed by analyses within the cohorts.  Matched population-based controls without wheezing history in early childhood were recruited for the studies in adulthood. One follow-up included only questionnaire data without lung function results. Two studies included control visits, and one of them presented clinical and lung function data, and the other clinical and bronchial reactivity data.  Respiratory syncytial virus was identified on admission in all three post-wheezing cohorts, and rhinoviruses in the newest cohort from the 1990`s. 

The present narrative review summarizes data on asthma and lung function reduction in adults aged >25 years after hospitalization for wheezing at age <24 months compared to population-based controls in the three until now published prospective post-wheezing cohorts. The frequency of doctor-diagnosed asthma varied from 10.3% to 36.6%, and that of self-reported symptom-based asthma from 35.4% to 40.7%. The differences between cases and controls were significant and robust to adjustments with current smoking and allergic rhinitis, which were associated with asthma in all cohorts. One cohort study reported lung function results, and both baseline and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volumes were lower in cases than in controls. About 10-15% of former early-childhood wheezers presented with irreversible lung function reduction characteristic to chronic obstructive lung disease. Family asthma was associated with current asthma, but other early risk factors, with exception of blood eosinophilia in one cohort, were not anymore predictive.

In conclusion, hospitalization for infection-associated wheezing at <24 months of age was an independently significant risk factor of asthma in adults at >25 years of age.

Oishi Sikdar and Anne Greenough

Abstract

Sickle Cell Disease is a life-threatening hereditary blood disorder which affects millions of people worldwide. Pulmonary complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with sickle cell disease. Asthma is a recognised comorbidity of sickle cell disease and may occur in between 15 and 28% of children with sickle cell disease. It has been associated with increased episodes of acute chest syndrome and all cause mortality. Obstructive lung disease, however, is common in children with sickle cell disease, independent of an asthma diagnosis. This review explores the pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutic opportunities for asthma in sickle cell disease patients. The diagnostic challenges and inconsistencies in current clinical approaches are highlighted. Convergence of inflammatory pathways in sickle cell disease and asthma occurs, but there is also a heightened level of inflammation unique to sickle cell disease. Thus, wheezing may not be due to asthma but be a manifestation of sickle cell disease per se and the result of the increased pulmonary vascular volume.  As a consequence, anti-asthma therapy may not be appropriate for all wheezy children with sickle cell disease and commencing treatment on the basis of a physician’s diagnosis alone is inappropriate. Data from paediatric cohorts suggest use of spirometry, aeroallergen sensitisation tests, impulse oscillometry and dedicated interdisciplinary pulmonary clinics could improve diagnosis accuracy. Corticosteroids and bronchodilators are well-established treatments for asthma; observational studies suggest they may provide benefit for some children with sickle cell disease, but therapies such as hydroxyurea may improve respiratory outcomes in others. It is, therefore, essential children are thoroughly investigated and followed-up and a personalised approach taken to their care. Prospective randomised studies are required to establish the effectiveness of asthma therapies in children with sickle cell disease. 

Tassalapa Daengsuwan and On-anong Nilwalaikul

Abstract

Background: Impulse oscillometry (IOS), a new respiratory impedance measurement, is increasing in its popularity as a means to assess airway resistance in young children. Its great advantage lies in its effortless and fast performance, making the airway obstruction measurement easier for patients who are not able to perform spirometry tests. However, studies comparing spirometry with IOS in Thai children are rare.

Aims: To evaluate the correlation between IOS and spirometry parameters in Thai childhood asthma

Methods: Vyntus IOS (JEAGER®, Germany) and spirometry tests (Vyntus SPIRO) were performed in 48 children, aged 5-15 years old, who fulfilled the GINA asthma criteria. The study, approved by the hospital’s ethics committee, was conducted between March 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021 at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Thailand. (TCTR20220527005)

Results: Forty-eight childhood asthma patients with a median age of 10.79 (IQR = 8.41, 11.87) years underwent both IOS and spirometry measurements. Male sex was predominant (64.58%), and 77% of patients had well-controlled asthma (C-ACT score ≥20). In our study population, the atopic comorbidities were allergic rhinitis (91.67%), atopic dermatitis (10.42%) and food allergy (10.42%). Moreover, parental asthma was found in 16.67% of the participants. In comparison with spirometry, the percentage change of FEF25-75% was significantly negatively correlated with R5, R10, AX, and mean R5-R20 (r = -0.608, -0.528, -0.500, -0.511, respectively; p <0.001). Likewise, FEV1 was significantly negatively correlated with R15 and R20 (r = -0.520, -0.565, respectively; p <0.001). The linear regression prediction model demonstrated that a 30% increase in FEF25-75% was related to a 22.7% reduction in R5 (p = 0.007).

Conclusion:  The percentage change of FEF25-75% was found to negatively correlate in statistically significant terms with R5 in Thai childhood asthma. Hence, IOS is an effective and feasible replacement for spirometry as a measurement modality of lung function, especially in young children. 

Angelica Gangemi, Nabil Abou-Baker, and Kristin Wong

Abstract

Purpose: This study examines the correlation of the Mini Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (miniPAQLQ) with the Got Transitions Readiness Assessment Survey (GTRAS) of inner-city adolescents and young adults with asthma in Newark, New Jersey.

Methods: One hundred six patients with asthma, aged 12-21 years old, were assessed at University Hospital in Newark, NJ while receiving typical care. In this cross-sectional study, patients were assessed using the miniPAQLQ and GTRAS tools. General demographics were captured. MiniPAQLQ sections on activity, symptom, and emotional function, were compared to the GTRAS questions on perceived transition readiness and ability to complete healthcare tasks

Results: Fifty-three percent of the patients were female, 57% were African American, 37% were Latino/a, and 97% had insurance. The overall median quality of life (QOL) score was 6. Specific activity, symptom and emotional function QOL scores did not correlate with overall perceived transition readiness. However, QOL scores >5 did correlate with patients’ abilities to complete specific health-related tasks of transition, especially when comparing emotional function and “knowing” their health.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the emotional function of adolescents and young adults with asthma is significantly linked to their ability to complete healthcare tasks independently, indicating that a psychological-based approach to transition may be necessary. Low emotional QOL scores may help identify patients at risk of poor transition who would benefit from additional intervention. Further research is needed to assess quality of life and its effects on development of these patients.

González-Uribe, V., Martínez-Tenopala, R., Baro-Alvarez, P., & Mojica-Gonzalez, Z. S. (2022). 

Abstract

Background: Asthma is a chronic allergic disease characterized by variable airflow limitation; Obesity is a chronic disease that has reached epidemic proportions globally. Both are diseases with a significant inflammatory component, and their relationship suggests being weight dependent. Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) is the main adipokine secreted by white adipose tissue, it is an insulin synthesizer and regulator of energy homeostasis, and its plasma levels are inversely correlated with obesity and asthma. The effect of genetic factors in both diseases has been investigated, and haplotypes of the ADIPOQ 45 T/G (rs2241766) and ADIPOQ 276 G/T (rs1501299) polymorphisms have been related.

Aims: To know de polymorphisms frequency of ADIPOQ 45 and ADIPO 276 in obese and eutrophic adolescents with and without asthma, likewise, link the adiponectin levels with the presence of such polymorphisms. 

Methods: An observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study in which 169 Mexican adolescents were recruited. Thirty mL of blood was taken from each individual; genomic DNA was extracted using the saline expulsion technique and quantified by spectrophotometry; two polymorphisms located in the promoter region were studied: ADIPOQ 45 and ADIPOQ 276; the determination of the different polymorphisms was carried out using TaqMan probes using real-time PCR (qPCR) using the commercial kit TaqMan One Step RT-PCR mastermix, the RNA extraction was carried out with Trizol Ls (Invitrogen), and the fluorescence was quantified employing the 7900HT ABI PRISM real-time computer SDS software.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences between ADIPOQ 276 and ADIPOQ 45 polymorphisms in asthmatic and obese patients. Compared to the control group, a negative correlation was observed between adiponectin plasmatic levels in obese and asthmatic individuals.

Conclusion: The ADIPOQ 276 and ADIPOQ 45 polymorphisms do not seem to be associated with asthma and obesity in the Mexican population. It is necessary to continue studying these polymorphisms and consider larger populations.

Feng, D. (2022). 

Abstract

Yokkaichi asthma is one of Japan’s four “big pollution diseases.” It occurred in the early 1960s and was caused by emissions from the petrochemical industry. The disease led to the first litigation concerning air pollution in Japan. From 1967 to 1972, citizens fought against corporations as part of the Yokkaichi lawsuit. This article explores how Yokkaichi asthma occurred, how citizens saw the disease before and during the lawsuit, and what actions they took to react to the problem. By appealing, studying, recording, and measuring, citizens in Yokkaichi made their voices heard and helped scientists testify during the legal proceedings, ultimately promoting Japan’s environmental legislation.

Visser, R. (2016).

Abstract

Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a frequent and specific symptom of childhood asthma featured by expiratory flow limitation. A recent study showed that exercise can also induce inspiratory flow limitation, independent of EIB.  The aim of this study was to investigate whether salbutamol protects against exercise induced inspiratory flow limitation in asthmatic children.

Methods: The study had a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over design with two exercise challenge tests preceded by the inhalation of 200µg salbutamol or placebo. Children 8-16 years old with documented exercise induced inspiratory flow limitation performed two exercise challenge tests (ECT’s) to assess EIB. EIB was defined as a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥ 13% whereas inspiratory flow limitation was defined as a fall in mid inspiratory flow (MIF50) ≥ 25%. 

Results: 63% of the children (19/30) with exercise induced flow limitation showed an inspiratory flow limitation. Salbutamol significantly reduced the mean exercise induced fall in MIF50 in children with exercise induced inspiratory flow limitation compared to placebo (17.6% versus 24.9%, p=0.004).

Conclusions: We observed a significant but inconsistent, individually variable protection of salbutamol against exercise induced inspiratory flow limitation in contrast to the consistent protective effect of salbutamol against EIB. We confirmed that a substantial number of the children with exercise induced flow limitation have an inspiratory flow limitation. Asthmatic children who experience persistent exercise induced asthmatic symptoms despite the use of (prophylactic) salbutamol, may suffer from an inspiratory flow limitation as a component of their asthma.

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Nagasaka, Y., & Tsuchiya, M. (2021). 

Abstract

Since the historical article by Forgacs in 1978, many studies have clarified the changes of lung sounds due to airway narrowing as well as the mechanism of genesis of these sounds. Studies using bronchoprovocation have shown that an increase of the frequency and/or intensity of lung sounds was a common finding of airway narrowing and correlated well with lung function in bronchial asthma. Bronchoprovocation studies also showed that wheezing may not be as sensitive as changes in basic lung sounds in acute airway narrowing in adult asthmatics.

In lung sound analysis, narrow airways cause an increase in the frequency of breath sounds and lung sound intensity, implying when the patient has higher than normal breath sounds, i.e., bronchial sounds, he or she may have airway narrowing. Recent studies reported that this increase of breath sounds suggested worsening of airway inflammation in rather stable patients with bronchial asthma. As it is difficult to detect subtle changes in lung sounds by auscultation alone, automated sound analysis will be expected.

Galvis, J., Villanueva, S., Mollinedo, M., Vázquez, M. F., Rodríguez, M., Vera, E., Álvarez-Leire, G., Lifona, L., Bacaicoa, M., Paez, A., Rodilla, E., Daga, Ó., Quintero, O., Capilla, M. R., Lorenzo, I., López, B. S., & Cancelliere, N. (2023). 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: More than 90% of the Spanish population has been vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in our setting. The administration of this vaccine is not contraindicated in allergic subjects; however, it is unknown whether any precaution should be taken when initiating subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy after this vaccination.

The objective of the study was to analyze the safety of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy during the dose escalation phase in subjects sensitized to pollens or mites previously vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2.

METHODS: An observational study with retrospective data collection from protocolled patients’ medical records was designed. Outpatients older than 12 years with diagnosis of pollen or house dust mite allergic rhinitis with or without bronchial allergic asthma were selected who had completed the subcutaneous immunotherapy dose escalation phase. A complete SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was required for the inclusion.

RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy-nine patients were included by 53 investigators. The mean age was 31 years old and 55,9% female. Time from last SARS-Cov-2 vaccination dose to subcutaneous immunotherapy initiation was 4.1 months (95%CI 3.8-4.4). subcutaneous immunotherapy with a pollen allergoid was administered to 135 patients (35.6%) with a total of 739 injections, while subcutaneous immunotherapy using a house dust mite allergoid was administered to 244 patients (64.4%) with a total of 1311 doses. During the dose escalation phase with the pollen allergoid, 45 patients (33.3%) suffered 93 local adverse reactions (12.6% of injections), while 17 patients (12.6%) experienced 17 systemic allergic reactions (2.3% of injections) of them 14 were World Allergy Organization Grade 1 and 3 of Grade 2. During the dose escalation phase with the house dust mite allergoid, 55 patients (22.5%) reported 133 local adverse reactions (10.1% of injections), and 7 patients (2.9%) showed 7 World Allergy Organization Grade 1 systemic reactions (0.5% of injections). No systemic reactions Grade 3 or higher were reported.

CONCLUSIONS: The well-known safety profile of the subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy using pollen or house dust mite allergoids has not been changed after the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration. No relevant differences in the incidence of local or systemic allergic reactions during the dose escalation phase were identified, so it is considered that the patient’s safety has not been compromised to initiate this treatment after the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration.

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