Side Views in 3D Live Cell Microscopy

Main Article Content

Herbert Schneckenburger


Commonly trans-illumination or epi-illumination techniques are used in optical microscopy, e.g. phase microscopy, fluorescence microscopy or inelastic light scattering (Raman microscopy). However, an increasing number of applications requires optical excitation perpendicular or under a certain angle to the optical axis. Methods include Mie Scattering Microscopy with angular resolution for label-free studies of cell or tissue morphology as well as Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy with an evanescent electromagnetic field penetrating only about 100 nm into a sample and permitting selective studies of cell surfaces, e.g. membranes. Presently, conventional wide field or confocal microscopy are often replaced by Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) where individual planes of a specimen are illuminated from the side without any light exposure or phototoxic damage of adjacent parts of the sample. Finally, Axial Tomography permits samples to be observed from various sides with a high and isotropic resolution in all three dimensions. All these methods require experimental setups which are not integrated in conventional microscopes. Therefore, we report on some technical solutions implemented in specific modules or add-ons for these microscopes.

Article Details

How to Cite
SCHNECKENBURGER, Herbert. Side Views in 3D Live Cell Microscopy. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 1, jan. 2020. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 june 2021. doi:
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.