Selecting the Appropriate Memory Test for Patients with Stroke: Criterion Validity of the Buschke Selective Reminding Test

Main Article Content

Damian Leitner Megan Udala Harry Miller Maya Libben


Accurate assessment of memory following a stroke is important for patient rehabilitation. The Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT) is a test of verbal learning and memory that can be used to assess many clinical populations. The current study investigated the criterion validity of the SRT by comparing scores from patients with stroke to healthy controls, and identified scores on the SRT that best differentiate between these two groups. Participants included 65 patients with stroke and 65 age-and education-matched healthy controls. The control group differed significantly from patients with stroke on all scores (p <.01). Spearman’s rho correlations revealed potential multicollinearity between multiple SRT measures. Binomial logistic regression suggested SRT scores differentiated patients with stroke from controls, and correctly classified 76% of cases. Lower continuous long-term retrieval (CLTR) scores were more likely among patients with stroke. Results supported the SRT as useful for identifying verbal learning and memory impairment in acute stroke inpatients.

Keywords: Memory, Neuropsychological Assessment, Stroke, Psychometrics, Selective Reminding Test

Article Details

How to Cite
LEITNER, Damian et al. Selecting the Appropriate Memory Test for Patients with Stroke: Criterion Validity of the Buschke Selective Reminding Test. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 8, aug. 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 mar. 2024. doi:
Review Articles


Al-Qazzaz, N. K., Ali, S. H., Ahmad, S. A., Islam, S., & Mohamad, K. (2014). Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction after a stroke diagnosis: a post-stroke memory assessment. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 10, 1677. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S67184
Baldo, J. V., Delis, D., Kramer, J., & Shimamura, A. (2002). Memory performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-II: Findings from patients with focal frontal lesions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 539-546.
Barker-Collo, S., & Feigin, V. (2006). The impact of neuropsychological deficits on functional stroke outcomes. Neuropsychology Review, 16(2), 53-64. Retrieved from
Beatty, W. W., Wilbanks, S. L., Blanco, C. R., Hames, K. A., Tivis, R., & Paul, R. H. (1996). Memory disturbance in multiple sclerosis: reconsideration of patterns of performance on the selective reminding test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 18(1), 56-62.
Buschke, H. (1973). Selective reminding for analysis of memory and learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 543-550.
Campbell, M. E., Leitner, D., Miller, H. B., & Libben, M. (2017). Comparison of the Buschke Selective Reminding Test and the California Verbal Learning Test-in a stroke population. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 1-9. doi:
Campo, P., & Morales, M. (2004). Normative data and reliability for a Spanish version of the verbal Selective Reminding Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19(3), 421-435. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6177(03)00075-1
Costa, S. L., DeLuca, J., Costanza, K., & Chiaravalloti, N. D. (2019). Comparing the Open Trial–Selective Reminding Test results with the California Learning Verbal Test II in multiple sclerosis. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 26(5), 488-496.
Cullen, B., O’Neill, B., Evans, J. J., Coen, R. F., & Lawlor, B. A. (2007). A review of screening tests for cognitive impairment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 78(8), 790-799. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2006.095414
Davidson P.S., Troyer A.K., Moscovitch M (2006). Frontal lobe contributions to recognition and recall: Linking basic research with clinical evaluation and remediation. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 210–223.
Delis, D., Kramer, J., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. A. (2000). California Verbal Learning Test (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Delis, D. C., Wetter, S. R., Jacobson, M. W., Peavy, G., Hamilton, J., Gongvatana, A., ... & Salmon, D. P. (2005). Recall discriminability: Utility of a new CVLT–II measure in the differential diagnosis of dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(6), 708-715. doi:
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-198.
Hachinski, V., Iadecola, C., Petersen, R. C., Breteler, M. M., Nyenhuis, D. L., Black, S. E., ... & Vinters, H. V. (2006). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Canadian stroke network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke, 37(9), 2220-2241.
Hart, R. P., Kwentus, J. A., Hamer, R. M., & Taylor, J. R. (1987). Selective reminding procedure in depression and dementia. Psychology and Aging, 2(2), 111-115. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.2.2.111
Hildebrandt, H., Brand, A., & Sachsenheimer, W. (1998). Profiles of patients with left prefrontal and left temporal lobe lesions after cerebrovascular test-like indices. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20(5), 673-683. doi:10.1076/jcen.20.5.673.1119
Hoffmann, M. (2001). Higher cortical function deficits after stroke: an analysis of 1,000 patients from a dedicated cognitive stroke registry. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 15(2), 113-127. doi: 10.1177/154596830101500205
Hosmer Jr, D. W., Lemeshow, S., & Sturdivant, R. X. (2013). Applied logistic regression (Vol. 398). John Wiley & Sons.
Jacobs, M. L., & Donders, J. (2007). Criterion validity of the California Verbal Learning Test-(CVLT-II) after traumatic brain injury. Archives of clinical neuropsychology, 22(2), 143-149.
Kelley, W. M., Miezin, F. M., McDermott, K. B., Buckner, R. L., Raichle, M. E., Cohen, N. J., ... & Petersen, S. E. (1998). Hemispheric specialization in human dorsal frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe for verbal and nonverbal memory encoding. Neuron, 20(5), 927-936.
Lansing, A. E., Max, J. E., Delis, D. C., Fox, P. T., Lancaster, J., Manes, F. F., & Schatz, A. (2004). Verbal learning and memory after childhood stroke. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10(5), 742-752.
Larrabee, G. J., Largen, J. W., & Levin, H. S. (1985). Sensitivity of age-decline resistant (“hold”) WAIS subtests to Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 7(5), 497-504.
Larrabee, G. J., Trahan, D. E., Curtiss, G., & Levin, H. S. (1988). Normative data for the Verbal Selective Reminding Test. Neuropsychology, 2(3-4), 173-182.
Leitner, D., Miller, H., & Libben, M. (2017). Comparison of the Buschke Selective Reminding Test and the California Verbal Learning Test–Second Edition in a heterogeneous sample of people with traumatic brain injury. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 1-15. doi:
Levine, D. A., Galecki, A. T., Langa, K. M., Unverzagt, F. W., Kabeto, M. U., Giordani, B., & Wadley, V. G. (2015). Trajectory of Cognitive Decline After Incident Stroke. JAMA, 314(1), 41–51. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6968
Lezak M. D., Howieson D. B., Bigler E. D., Tranel D. (2012). Neuropsychological Assessment, 5th Edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Loring, D. W., & Papanicolaou, A. C. (1987). Memory assessment in neuropsychology: Theoretical considerations and practical utility. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 9, 340-358.
Loring, D. W., & Papanicolaou, A. C. (1987). Memory assessment in neuropsychology: Theoretical considerations and practical utility. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 9(4), 340-358.
Macartney-Filgate, M. S., & Vriezen, E. R. (1988). Intercorrelation of clinical tests of verbal memory. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3(2), 121-126.
Maud, A. (2006). Memory loss after stroke. Neurology, 67, E14-E15. doi: 10.1212/
Mokri, H., Ávila-Funes, J. A., Meillon, C., Gutiérrez Robledo, L. M., & Amieva, H. (2013). Normative data for the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and the Isaacs Set Test for an older adult Mexican population: the Coyoacan cohort study. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 27(6), 1004-1018.
Murji, S., Rourke, S. B., Donders, J., Carter, S. L., Shore, D., & Rourke, B. P. (2003). Theoretically derived CVLT subtypes in HIV-1 infection: Internal and external validation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9(1), 1-16. doiI:
Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bédirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., ... & Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695-699.
Nys, G. M. S., Van Zandvoort, M. J. E., De Kort, P. L. M., Jansen, B. P. W., De Haan, E. H. F., & Kappelle, L. J. (2007). Cognitive disorders in acute stroke: prevalence and clinical determinants. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23(5-6), 408-416.
Oni, O. D., Olagunju, A. T., Olisah, V. O., Aina, O. F., & Ojini, F. I. (2018). Post-stroke depression: Prevalence, associated factors and impact on quality of life among outpatients in a Nigerian hospital. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 24(1). doi: 10.4102/ sajpsychiatry.v24i0.1058
Pendlebury, S. T., Cuthbertson, F. C., Welch, S. J., Mehta, Z., & Rothwell, P. M. (2010). Underestimation of cognitive impairment by Mini-Mental State Examination versus the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in patients with transient ischemic attack and stroke: A population-based study. Stroke, 41(6), 1290-1293. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.579888
Pendlebury, S. T., & Rothwell, P. M. (2009). Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and post-stroke dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Neurology, 8(11), 1006-1018. doi: 10.1016/S1474- 4422(09)70236-4
Rabin, L. A., Barr, W. B., & Burton, L. A. (2005). Assessment practices of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada: A survey of INS, NAN, and APA Division 40 members. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 33-65. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2004.02.005
Rabin, L. A., Paolillo, E., & Barr, W. B. (2016). Stability in test-usage practices of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada over a 10-year period: A follow-up survey of INS and NAN members. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 31, 206-230.
Radomski, A. D., Power, C., Purdon, S. E., Emery, D. J., Blevins, G., Warren, K. G., & Fujiwara, E. (2015). Decision-making under explicit risk is impaired in multiple sclerosis: relationships with ventricular width and disease disability. BMC Neurology, 15, 61.
Rasquin, S. M. C., Verhey, F. R. J., Lousberg, R., Winkens, I., & Lodder, J. (2002). Vascular cognitive disorders: memory, mental speed and cognitive flexibility after stroke. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 203, 115-119.
Reitz, C., Luchsinger, J. A., Tang, M. X., Manly, J., & Mayeux, R. (2006). Stroke and memory performance in elderly persons without dementia. Archives of Neurology, 63, 571-576. doi: 10.1001/archneur.63.4.571
Richardson, M. P., Strange, B. A., Duncan, J. S., & Dolan, R. J. (2003). Preserved verbal memory function in left medial temporal pathology involves reorganisation of function to right medial temporal lobe. Neuroimage, 20, S112-S119. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.09.008
Ruff, R. M., Light, R. H., & Quayhagen, M. (1989). Selective reminding tests: A normative study of verbal learning in adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11(4), 539-550.
Salmon, D. P., Heindel, W. C., Hamilton, J. M., Filoteo, J. V., Cidambi, V., Hansen, M. A., Galasko, D., et al. (2015). Recognition memory span in 76 autopsy-confirmed dementia. Neuropsychologia, 75, 548–555. doi:
Snaphaan, L., & de Leeuw, F. E. (2007). Poststroke memory function in nondemented patients: a systematic review on frequency and neuroimaging correlates. Stroke, 38(1), 198-203. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000251842.34322.8f
Spencer, R. J., Wendell, C. R., Giggey, P. P., Katzel, L. I., Lefkowitz, D. M., Siegel, E. L., & Waldstein, S. R. (2013). Psychometric limitations of the mini-mental state examination among nondemented older adults: an evaluation of neurocognitive and magnetic resonance imaging correlates. Experimental Aging Research, 39(4), 382-397.
Springer S.P. & Deutsch G. (1981). Left brain. right brain. San Francisco, California: Free- man.
Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. New York, NY: American Chemical Society.
Thielen, H., Verleysen, G., Huybrechts, S., Lafosse, C., & Gillebert, C. R. (2019). Flemish Normative Data for the Buschke Selective Reminding Test. Psychologica Belgica, 59, 58–77. doi:
Van Heugten, C. M., Walton, L., & Hentschel, U. (2015). Can we forget the Mini-Mental State Examination? A systematic review of the validity of cognitive screening instruments within one month after stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 29(7), 694-704. doi: 10.1177/0269215514553012
Vilkki, J., Servo, A., & Surma-aho, O. (1998). Word list learning and prediction of recall after frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychology, 12, 268-277.
Weingartner, H., Grafman, J., Boutelle, W., Kaye, W., & Martin, P. R. (1983). Forms of memory failure. Science, 221(4608), 380-382. doi: 10.1126/science.6867715
Welte, P. O. (1993). Indices of verbal learning and memory deficits after right hemisphere stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74(6), 631-636. Retrieved from
Weschler, D. (2009). Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
Whitney, K. A., Mossbarger, B., Herman, S. M., & Ibarra, S. L. (2012). Is the Montreal cognitive assessment superior to the mini-mental state examination in detecting subtle cognitive impairment among middle-aged outpatient US Military veterans?. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27(7), 742-748. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acs060
Zalonis, I., Kararizou, E., Christidi, F., Kapaki, E., Triantafyllou, N. I., Varsou, A., ... & Vassilopoulos, D. (2009). Selective Reminding Test: demographic predictors of performance and normative data for the Greek population. Psychological reports, 104, 593-607. doi: 10.2466/PR0.104.2.593-607
Zola-Morgan, S., & Squire, S. R. (1993). Neuroanatomy of memory. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience, 16, 547-563.