Main Article Content
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease. It is among the fastest growing chronic diseases diagnosed in the world today. COPD is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is predicted to get worse. It is characterized by the development of an exaggerated inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious substances such as tobacco or air pollution. If the exposure becomes recurrent or persistent, the lungs develop chronic inflammatory response leading to lung parenchymal damage, air trapping and progressive airflow limitation. The Diagnosis of COPD is usually made in the contest of symptoms, exposure to risk factors and spirometry evidence of airway obstruction with post bronchodilator spirometry FEV1/FVC < 0.70. Most patients with COPD first sick medical attention when they develop dyspnea.
Once the diagnosis of COPD has been confirmed, the treatment is geared mainly towards preventing exacerbations and eliminating risk factors and exposures. Several treatments combinations can be used in patients with stable COPD to prevent exacerbations and to improve their quality of life. Patients with COPD exacerbations have to be appropriately diagnosed and promptly treated to prevent complications. Patient’s symptoms, the degree of airflow limitation, risk of exacerbations and the presence of comorbidities have to be assessed. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been used in the management of COPD.
The Medical Research Archives grants authors the right to publish and reproduce the unrevised contribution in whole or in part at any time and in any form for any scholarly non-commercial purpose with the condition that all publications of the contribution include a full citation to the journal as published by the Medical Research Archives.
2. Celli BR, Cote CG, Marin JM, et al. The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(10):1005-1012.
3. He T, Oks M, Esposito M, Steinberg H, Makaryus M. "Tree-in-Bloom": Severe Acute Lung Injury Induced by Vaping Cannabis Oil. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14(3):468-470.
4. Henry TS, Kanne JP, Kligerman SJ. Imaging of Vaping-Associated Lung Disease. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(15):1486-1487.
5. Layden JE, Ghinai I, Pray I, et al. Pulmonary Illness Related to E-Cigarette Use in Illinois and Wisconsin - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2019.
6. Ghinai I, Pray IW, Navon L, et al. E-cigarette Product Use, or Vaping, Among Persons with Associated Lung Injury - Illinois and Wisconsin, April-September 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(39):865-869.
7. Buist AS, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, et al. International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet. 2007;370(9589):741-750.
8. Gershon AS, Wang C, Wilton AS, Raut R, To T. Trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence, incidence, and mortality in ontario, Canada, 1996 to 2007: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(6):560-565.
9. Hall MJ, DeFrances CJ, Williams SN, Golosinskiy A, Schwartzman A. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2007 summary. Natl Health Stat Report. 2010(29):1-20, 24.
10. Gershon AS, Warner L, Cascagnette P, Victor JC, To T. Lifetime risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal population study. Lancet. 2011;378(9795):991-996.
11. Halbert RJ, Isonaka S, George D, Iqbal A. Interpreting COPD prevalence estimates: what is the true burden of disease? Chest. 2003;123(5):1684-1692.
12. Halbert RJ, Natoli JL, Gano A, Badamgarav E, Buist AS, Mannino DM. Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2006;28(3):523-532.
13. Guarascio AJ, Ray SM, Finch CK, Self TH. The clinical and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the USA. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2013;5:235-245.
14. Stockley RA. Neutrophils and protease/antiprotease imbalance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(5 Pt 2):S49-52.
15. Barnes PJ. Inflammatory mechanisms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(1):16-27.
16. Sze MA, Dimitriu PA, Suzuki M, et al. Host Response to the Lung Microbiome in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192(4):438-445.
17. Putman RK, Hatabu H, Araki T, et al. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality. Jama. 2016;315(7):672-681.
18. Hogg JC, Chu F, Utokaparch S, et al. The nature of small-airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(26):2645-2653.
19. Barnes PJ, Shapiro SD, Pauwels RA. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: molecular and cellular mechanisms. Eur Respir J. 2003;22(4):672-688.
20. Cosio MG, Saetta M, Agusti A. Immunologic aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(23):2445-2454.
21. Shave R, George KP, Atkinson G, et al. Exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(12):2099-2106.
22. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 2006;3(11):e442.
23. Lange P, Celli B, Agusti A, et al. Lung-Function Trajectories Leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(2):111-122.
24. Stern DA, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Guerra S, Martinez FD. Poor airway function in early infancy and lung function by age 22 years: a non-selective longitudinal cohort study. Lancet. 2007;370(9589):758-764.
25. Thomsen M, Nordestgaard BG, Vestbo J, Lange P. Characteristics and outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in never smokers in Denmark: a prospective population study. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1(7):543-550.
26. Stoller JK, Aboussouan LS. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Lancet. 2005;365(9478):2225-2236.
27. Kessler R, Partridge MR, Miravitlles M, et al. Symptom variability in patients with severe COPD: a pan-European cross-sectional study. Eur Respir J. 2011;37(2):264-272.
28. Espinosa de los Monteros MJ, Pena C, Soto Hurtado EJ, Jareno J, Miravitlles M. Variability of respiratory symptoms in severe COPD. Arch Bronconeumol. 2012;48(1):3-7.
29. Burrows B, Niden AH, Barclay WR, Kasik JE. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE. II. RELATIONSHIP OF CLINICAL AND PHYSIOLOGIC FINDINGS TO THE SEVERITY OF AIRWAYS OBSTRUCTION. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1965;91:665-678.
30. Stockley RA, O'Brien C, Pye A, Hill SL. Relationship of sputum color to nature and outpatient management of acute exacerbations of COPD. Chest. 2000;117(6):1638-1645.
31. Simon PM, Schwartzstein RM, Weiss JW, Fencl V, Teghtsoonian M, Weinberger SE. Distinguishable types of dyspnea in patients with shortness of breath. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;142(5):1009-1014.
32. Schols AM, Soeters PB, Dingemans AM, Mostert R, Frantzen PJ, Wouters EF. Prevalence and characteristics of nutritional depletion in patients with stable COPD eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;147(5):1151-1156.
33. Zwar NA, Marks GB, Hermiz O, et al. Predictors of accuracy of diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in general practice. Med J Aust. 2011;195(4):168-171.
34. Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Brusasco V, et al. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(5):948-968.
35. Heffner JE, Mularski RA, Calverley PM. COPD performance measures: missing opportunities for improving care. Chest. 2010;137(5):1181-1189.
36. Diaz PT, King MA, Pacht ER, et al. Increased susceptibility to pulmonary emphysema among HIV-seropositive smokers. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(5):369-372.
37. Wilkinson TM, Patel IS, Wilks M, Donaldson GC, Wedzicha JA. Airway bacterial load and FEV1 decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(8):1090-1095.
38. Berry MJ, Adair NE, Rejeski WJ. Use of peak oxygen consumption in predicting physical function and quality of life in COPD patients. Chest. 2006;129(6):1516-1522.
39. Dahl M, Vestbo J, Lange P, Bojesen SE, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. C-reactive protein as a predictor of prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175(3):250-255.
40. Drummond MB, Blackford AL, Benditt JO, et al. Continuous oxygen use in nonhypoxemic emphysema patients identifies a high-risk subset of patients: retrospective analysis of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. Chest. 2008;134(3):497-506.
41. de Torres JP, Cote CG, Lopez MV, et al. Sex differences in mortality in patients with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2009;33(3):528-535.
42. Kohansal R, Martinez-Camblor P, Agusti A, Buist AS, Mannino DM, Soriano JB. The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction revisited: an analysis of the Framingham offspring cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180(1):3-10.
43. Haruna A, Muro S, Nakano Y, et al. CT scan findings of emphysema predict mortality in COPD. Chest. 2010;138(3):635-640.
44. Eklof J, Sorensen R, Ingebrigtsen TS, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and risk of death and exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational cohort study of 22 053 patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019.
45. Chan KH, Kurmi OP, Bennett DA, et al. Solid Fuel Use and Risks of Respiratory Diseases. A Cohort Study of 280,000 Chinese Never-Smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199(3):352-361.
46. Doiron D, de Hoogh K, Probst-Hensch N, et al. Air pollution, lung function and COPD: results from the population-based UK Biobank study. Eur Respir J. 2019;54(1).
47. Lange P, Marott JL, Vestbo J, et al. Prediction of the clinical course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using the new GOLD classification: a study of the general population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186(10):975-981.
48. Jones PW, Tabberer M, Chen WH. Creating scenarios of the impact of COPD and their relationship to COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores. BMC Pulm Med. 2011;11:42.
49. Fletcher CM, Elmes PC, Fairbairn AS, Wood CH. The significance of respiratory symptoms and the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis in a working population. Br Med J. 1959;2(5147):257-266.
50. van der Molen T, Willemse BW, Schokker S, ten Hacken NH, Postma DS, Juniper EF. Development, validity and responsiveness of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003;1:13.
51. Kelly JL, Bamsey O, Smith C, et al. Health status assessment in routine clinical practice: the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score in outpatients. Respiration. 2012;84(3):193-199.