Handedness difference in cognitive performance decline from middle aged: Evidence from the Yakumo Study

Main Article Content

Takeshi Hatta Taketoshi Hatta Junko Hatta Akihiko Iwahara Kazumi Fujiwara


Handedness difference in the age-related cognitive decline was examined. Participants were healthy middle aged left-handed (n = 22, 10 men and 12 women) and right-handed (22 men and 56 women). Digit cancellation performance decline ratios were calculated by the longitudinal Digit Cancellation Test data with an interval of 10 years. Performance decline ratios were compared for handedness and sex concerning to D-CAT1 (1-digit cancellation condition) and D-CAT3 (3-digits cancellation condition) performances. The results indicated first that the performance decline ratio in the left-handed was significantly larger than that in the right-handed both in D-CAT1 and D-CAT3, suggestive of low aging tolerance of executive function in left-handed people. Moreover, there was a significant sex difference such that men demonstrated a larger decline in D-CAT3, which demands more considerable cognitive resources, compared to D-CAT1, whereas this was not observed in women. Possible executive function mechanisms during aging were discussed in relation to handedness and sex.

Article Details

How to Cite
HATTA, Takeshi et al. Handedness difference in cognitive performance decline from middle aged: Evidence from the Yakumo Study. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 11, dec. 2020. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2288>. Date accessed: 28 nov. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v8i11.2288.
Research Articles


1. Carey DP, & Johnstone LT. Quantifying cerebral asymmetries for language in dextrals and adextrals with random-effects meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017; doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01128.
2. Hatta T. Handedness and brain: A review of brain-imaged techniques. Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences. 2007; 6: 99-112.
3. Monk CS. The development of emotion-related neural circuitry in health and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology. 2008; 20: 1231-1250.
4. Omura K, Constable RD, & Canli T. Amygdala gray matter concentration is associated with extraversion and neuroticism. Neuroreport. 2005; 16: 1905-1908.
5. Baddeley AD. Working memory: theories, models, and controversies. Annual Review of Psychology. 2012; 63: 1-29.
6. Jorgenson C, Davis J, Opella J, & Angerstein G. Hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of Stroop stimuli: An examination of gender, hand-preference, and language differences. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1980; 11: 165-169.
7. Simon JR, Paulline C, Overmyer SR, & Berbaum K. Reaction time to word meaning and ink color of laterally-presented Stroop stimuli: Effects of handedness and sex. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1985; 28: 21-33.
8. Hatta T. Handedness effects on the Stroop colour word test: Is left-handedness associated with a more inferior cognitive function? Journal of Human Environmental Studies. 2016; 14: 145-148.
9. Van der Elst W, Van Boxtel MPJ, Van Breukelen GJP & Jolles J. Is left-handedness associated with a more pronounced age-related cognitive decline? Laterality.2008a; 13: 234-254.
10. Van der Elst W, Van Boxtel MPJ, Van Breukelen GJ, & Jolles J. Detecting the significance of changes in performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test, Rey’s Verbal Learning Test, and the Letter Digit Substitution Test: The regression-based change approach. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 2008b; 14: 71–80.
11. Beratis IO, Rabavilas A, Kyprianou M, Papadimitriou GN & Parageorgiou C. Investigation of the link between higher order cognitive functions and handedness. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2013; 35: 393-403.
12. Beratis IO, Rabavilas A, Papadimitriou GN, & Parageorgiou C. Effect of handedness on the Stroop colour word task. Laterality. 2010; 15: 597-609.
13. Miyake A, Friedman NP, Emerson MJ, Witzki AH, Howerter A, & Wager TD. The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "Frontal Lobe" tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology. 2000; 41: 49-100.
14. Morris N, & Jones DM. Memory updating in working memory: The role of the central executive. British Journal of Psychology. 1990; 81: 111-121.
15. Hatta T. Associations between handedness and executive function in upper-middle-aged people, Laterality. 2017; DOI: 10.1080/1357650X.2017.1358273
16. Schaie KW. Quasi-experimental design in the psychology of aging. In J. E. Birren & K.W. Schaie (Eds.). Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp.39-58). New York: Van Nordstrand Reinhold, 1997.
17. Uttl B, & Van Alstine CL. Rising verbal intelligence scores: implications for research and clinical practice. Psychology and Aging. 2003; 18: 616-621. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.18.3.616
18. Hatta T. Which inventory should be used to assess Japanese handedness? : Comparison between Edinburgh and H. N. handedness inventories. Journal of Human Environmental Studies. 2008; 6: 45-48.
19. Hatta T. & Kawakami A. Patterns of handedness in modern Japanese: A cohort effect shown by re-administration of the H. N. Handedness Inventory after 20 years. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1996; 49: 5050-512.33.
20. Coetzer R, & Balchin R. Working with brain injury: A primer for psychologists in under-resourced setting. London: Psychology Press, 2014.32.
21. Lezak MD, Howieson DB, Bigler ED, & Tranel D. Neuropsychological Assessment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012.
22. Hatta T, Yoshizaki K, Ito Y, Mase M, & Kabasawa H. Reliability and validity of the digit cancellation test: A brief screen of attention, Psychologia. 2012; 55: 246-256.
23. Solberg MM, & Mateer CA. Effectiveness of an attention-training program. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 1987; 9: 117-130.
24. Hatta T, Ito Y, & Yoshizaki K. D-CAT: Screening test for attention. Osaka: Union Press, 2001.
25. Hatta T, Yoshizaki K, & Ito Y. Development of screening test for attention by digit cancellation method. In K. Yoshizaki & H. Ohnishi (Eds.) Contemporary issues of brain, communication and education in psychology (pp. 3-19). Osaka: Union Press, 2009.
26. Hibino S, Mase M, Shirataki T, Nagano Y, Fukagawa K, Abe A, et. al. Oxyhemoglobin changes during cognitive rehabilitation of the traumatic brain injury using near Infrared Spectroscopy. Neurolia Medico-Chirurgi. 2013; 53: 299-303.
27. Hatta T, Kato K, Hotta C, Higashikawa M, Iwahara A, Hatta T, et al. Visual search load effects on age-related cognitive decline:Evidence from the Yakumo longitudinal study. American Journal of Psychology. 2017; 130: 73-82.
28. Kimura D. Sex and Cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.
29. De Kovel CF, Carrion-Castillo A, & Francks C. A large-scale population study of early life factors influencing left-handedness. Scientific Reports. 2019; 9: 584 Doi:10.1038/s41598-018-37423-8.
30. Geschwind N, & Galaburda AM. Cerebral lateralization. Archives of Neurology. 1985; 42: 428-459, 521-552, 634-654.
31. Burgess PW, & Stuss DT. Fifty-years of prefrontal cortex research: Impact of assessment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 2017; 23: 755-767.
32. Bryden MP, McManus IC, & Bultman-Fleming MB. Evaluating the empirical support for the Geschwind-Behan-Galaburda model of cerebral lateralization. Brain and Cognition. 1997; 26: 312-326.
33. Porac C, Friesen IC. Hand preference side and its relation to hand preference switch history among old and oldest-old adults. Developmental Neuropsychology. 2000; 17: 225-239.