Black Bile, Manic Depression and Melancholy: Two Pillars of Our Understanding

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Jason Tipton


I aim to demonstrate the movement of the argument of the Aristotelian Problem XXX.1 as it illuminates the phenomena of melancholy, which it is argued is more rightly understood as manic depression, and black bile.  The discussion will aid contemporary researchers in psychiatry as well as those in ancient philosophy and medicine.  An appeal to both Emil Kraeplin and the Aristotelian author will demonstrate surprising resonances.  An appeal to Aristotle’s discussion of anger in the De Anima will make clearer what is at stake in Problem XXX.1.

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TIPTON, Jason. Black Bile, Manic Depression and Melancholy: Two Pillars of Our Understanding. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 4, apr. 2021. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 14 may 2021. doi:


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