Mechanisms and Managements of Influenza and its Related Pneumonia

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Masafumi Seki, MD, PhD


Influenza have been a huge issue mainly in elderly people, particularly on the management of patients with pneumonia.

The influenza-related pneumonia were generally divided in to two categories, such as primary influenza pneumonia and influenza-related bacterial pneumonia, respectively. The molecular mechanisms, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) might be contributed to severe influenza mediated through the ‘cytokine storms’, similar to COVID-19. Co-infection with influenza virus and bacteria were suggested to synergic, and also exacerbate the influenza.

The importance of administration of anti- influenza, including Baloxavir, a novel anti-influenza agent, and preventive efforts centered on vaccinations combined with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines should be considered.


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SEKI, Masafumi. Mechanisms and Managements of Influenza and its Related Pneumonia. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 7, july 2021. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 may 2022. doi:
Research Articles


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