Mechanisms and Managements of Influenza and its Related Pneumonia
Main Article Content
Influenza have been a huge issue mainly in elderly people, particularly on the management of patients with pneumonia.
The influenza-related pneumonia were generally divided in to two categories, such as primary influenza pneumonia and influenza-related bacterial pneumonia, respectively. The molecular mechanisms, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) might be contributed to severe influenza mediated through the ‘cytokine storms’, similar to COVID-19. Co-infection with influenza virus and bacteria were suggested to synergic, and also exacerbate the influenza.
The importance of administration of anti- influenza, including Baloxavir, a novel anti-influenza agent, and preventive efforts centered on vaccinations combined with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines should be considered.
The Medical Research Archives grants authors the right to publish and reproduce the unrevised contribution in whole or in part at any time and in any form for any scholarly non-commercial purpose with the condition that all publications of the contribution include a full citation to the journal as published by the Medical Research Archives.
2. Kohno S Imamura Y, Shindo Y, Seki M, Ishida T, Teramoto S, Kadota J, Tomono K, Watanabe A. Clinical practice guidelines for nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) Respir Investig 2013; 51: 103-26.
3. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, Anzueto A, Brozek J, Crothers K, Cooley LA, Dean NC, Fine MJ, Flanders SA, Griffin MR, Metersky ML, Musher DM, Restrepo MI, Whitney CG. Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia. An Official Clinical Practice Guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019; 200: e45-e67.
4. Oikawa N, Seki M. Clinical Differences in Hospitalized Adult Influenza Patients between the A(H1N1) pdm09 and the A (H3N2) Seasons in Japan. J Infect Dis Ther 2018; 6: 1-6.
5. Takashita E, Ichikawa M,, Morita H, Ogawa R, Fujisaki S, Shirakura M, Miura H, Nakamura K, Kishida N, Kuwahara T, Sugawara H, Sato A, Akimoto M, Mitamura K, Abe T, Yamazaki M, Watanabe S, Hasegawa H, Odagiri T. Human-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus with Reduced Susceptibility to Baloxavir, Japan, February 2019. Emerg Infect Dis 2019; 17: 25.
6. Hayden FG, Shindo N, Hirotsu N, Lee N, de Jong MD, Hurt AC, Ishida T, Sekino H, Yamada K, Portsmouth S, Kawaguchi K, Shishido T, Arai M, Tsuchiya K, Uehara T, Watanabe A; Baloxavir Marboxil Investigators Group. Baloxavir Marboxil for Uncomplicated Influenza in Adults and Adolescents. N Engl J Med 2018; 379: 913-23..
7. Seki M Yanagihara K, Higashiyama Y, Fukuda Y, Kaneko Y, Ohno H, Miyazaki Y, Hirakata Y, Tomono K, Kadota J, Tashiro T, Kohno S. Immunokinetics in severe pneumonia due to influenza virus and bacteria coinfection in mice. Eur Respir J 2004; 24: 143-9.
8. Seki M, Fuke R, Oikawa N, Hariu M, Watanabe Y. Association of influenza with severe pneumonia/empyema in the community, hospital, and healthcare-associated setting. Respir Med Case Rep 2016; 24.
9. Seki M, Kohno S, Newstead MW, Zeng X, Bhan U, Lukacs NW, Kunkel SL, Standiford TJ. Critical role of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M in regulating chemokine-dependent deleterious inflammation in murine influenza pneumonia. J Immunol 2010; 184: 1410-8.
10. Seki M, Suyama N, Hashiguchi K, Hara A, Kosai K, Kurihara S, Nakamura S, Yamamoto K, Imamura Y, Izumikawa K, Kakaya H, Yanagihara K, Yamamoto Y, Mukae H, Tashiro T, Kohno S. A patient with fulminant influenza-related bacterial pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Intern Med 2008; 47: 2043-7.
11. Hamaguchi S, Seki M, Yamamoto N, Hirose T, Matsumoto N, Irisawa T, Takegawa R, Shimazu T, Tomono K. Case of invasive nontypable Haemophilus influenzae respiratory tract infection with a large quantity of neutrophil extracellular traps in sputum. J Inflamm Res 2012; 5: 137-40.
12. Hirose T, Hamaguch S, Matsumoto N, Irisawa T, Seki M, Tasaki O, Hosotsubo H, Tomono K, Shimazu T. Dynamic changes in the expression of neutrophil extracellular traps in acute respiratory infections. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 185: 1130-1.
13. Zhu L Liu L, Zhang Y, Pu L, Liu J, Li X, Chen Z, Hao Y, Wang B, Han J, Li G, Liang S, Xiong H, Zheng H, Li A, Xu J, Zeng H. High Level of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Correlates With Poor Prognosis of Severe Influenza A Infection. J Infect Dis 2018; 217: 428-37.
14. Seki M, Kosai K, Yanagihara K, et al. Disease severity in patients with simultaneous influenza and bacterial pneumonia. Intern Med 2007; 46: 953-8.
15. Seki M, Higashiyama Y, Tomono K, Yanagihara K, Ohno H, Kaneko Y, Izumikawa K, Miyazaki Y, Hirakata Y, Mizuta Y, Tashiro T, Kohno S. Acute infection with influenza virus enhances susceptibility to fatal pneumonia following Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice with chronic pulmonary colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Exp Immunol 2004; 137: 35-40.
16. Kosai K, Seki M, Yanagihara K, Nakamura S, Kurihara S, Izumikawa K, Kakeya H, Yamamoto Y, Tashiro T, Kohno S. Elevated levels of high mobility group box chromosomal protein-1 (HMGB-1) in sera from patients with severe bacterial pneumonia coinfected with influenza virus. Scand J Infect Dis 2007; 40: 338-42.
17. Seki M , Oikawa N, Hariu M, Watanabe Y. Methylprednisolone for Antibiotic-Refractory Haemophilus influenzae Infection. Journal of Infectious Pulmonary Diseases 2017; 3: 1-3.
18. Seki M, Hashiguchi K, Kosai K, Higashiyama H, Yanagihara K , Kurihara S ,Izumikawa K, Miyazaki M, Hirakata Y,Tashiro T, Kohno S. A patient with fulminant primary influenza pneumonia which developed into secondary bacterial pneumonia. Acta Medica Nagasakiensia 2006; 51: 121-4.
19. Tashiro M Ciborowski P,, Klenk HD, Pulverer G, Rott R. Role of Staphylococcus protease in the development of influenza pneumonia. Nature 1987; 325: 536-7.
20. Ishida T, Seki M, Oishi K, Tateda K, Fujita J, Kadota JI, Kawana A, Izumikawa K, Kikuchi T, Ohmagari N, Yamada M, Maruyama T, Takazono T, Miki M, Miyazaki Y, Yamazaki Y, Kakeya H, Ogawa K, Nagai H, Watanabe A. Clinical manifestations of adult patients requiring influenza-associated hospitalization: A prospective multicenter cohort study in Japan via internet surveillance. J Infect Chemother 2021; 27: 480-5.
21. Zhang J, Kang X. Plastic bronchitis associated with influenza virus infection in children: a report on 14 cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015; 79: 481-6.
22. Ison MG, Hui DS,, Clezy K, O'Neil BJ, Flynt A, Collis PJ, Simon TJ, Alexander WJ. A clinical trial of intravenous peramivir compared with oral oseltamivir for the treatment of seasonal influenza in hospitalized adults. Antivir Ther 2013; 18: 651-61
23. Ison MG, Fraiz J,Heller B, Jauregui L, Mills G, O'Riordan W, O'Neil B, Playford EG, Rolf JD, Sada-Diaz E, Elder J, Collis P, Hernandez JE, Sheridan WP. Intravenous peramivir for treatment of influenza in hospitalized patients. Antivir Ther 2014; 19: 349-61.
24. Kiso M Lopez TJS, Yamayoshi S, Ito M, Yamashita M, Nakajima N, Hasegawa H, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Combination Therapy With Neuraminidase and Polymerase Inhibitors in Nude Mice Infected With Influenza Virus. J Infect Dis 2018; 217: 887-96.
25. Furuta Y, Komeno T, Nakamura T. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2017; 93: 449-63.
26. Seki M S-TY, Yasuhara A, Watanabe Y. Adult influenza A (H3N2) with reduced susceptibility to baloxavir or peramivir cured after switching anti-influenza agents. IDCases 2019; 18: doi: 10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00650. eCollection 2019.
27. Seki M. Strategies for Geriatric Pneumonia in Healthcare Facilities - How Effective is Combined Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination? Int J Gen Med 2020; 13: 663-6.
28. Maruyama T, Taguchi O, Niederman MS, Morser J, Kobayashi H, Kobayashi T, D'Alessandro-Gabazza C, Nakayama S, Nishikubo K, Noguchi T, Takei Y, Gabazza EC. Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents: double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2010; 340: doi: 10.1136/bmj.c004.
29. van Deursen AMM, van Houten MA,, Webber C, Patton M, Scott D, Patterson S, Jiang Q, Gruber WC, Schmoele-Thoma B, Grobbee DE, Bonten MJM, Sanders EAM. The Impact of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pneumococcal Carriage in the Community Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) Study. Clin Infect Dis 2018; 67: 42-9.
30. Seki M, Chang B, Ohshima K, Watanabe Y. Two cases of acute pneumococcal purulent arthritis. IDCases 2018; 12: 13-5.
31. Clutterbuck EA, Lazarus R, Yu LM, et al Pneumococcal conjugate and plain polysaccharide vaccines have divergent effects on antigen-specific B cells. J Infect Dis 2012; 205: 1408-16.