The Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer in Chinese Biopsy Naïve Men. The Role of Mpmri and Targeted Biopsy and Risk Stratification Using PSA Density

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Kai Zhang Zijian Song S. Remmers Rui Chen Gang Zhu Monique J Roobol


Objective To evaluate the performance of the systematic (SBx) and targeted prostate biopsy (TBx) in detecting prostate cancer (PCa) and significant prostate cancer (csPCa) and including upfront risk stratification with PSA Density (PSAD) in a biopsy naïve cohort of Chinese men.

Methods A total of 348 men from two medical centers were available for analyses.  All men underwent a mpMRI scan based on an elevated PSA and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). A total of 150 men received both SBx and TBx prostate biopsy (PIRADS >= 3). In these men the detection ratio was calculated as the PCa and csPCa prevalence of the TBx strategy divided by the prevalence of PCa and csPCa of the SBx + TBx strategy. For PSAD analyses the percentage missed csPCa were plotted against the clinically relevant thresholds of PSAD (range 0.01 – 0.20).

Results In the men with PIRADS >= 3, a total of 89 PCa cases (59 being csPCa) were detected. The TBx alone strategy detected 74 of all PCa, leading to a detection ratio of 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90). For csPCa these numbers were 48 of the total 59 csPCa cases, i.e a detection ratio of  0.81 (95% CI 0.69-0.90).With the focus on avoiding missing csPCa diagnoses a  cut-off of PSA D 0.10 seemed optimal in this cohort, leading to a reduction of 15% of all referrals, missing 6% of all PCa and 2% of csPCa. A similar cut-off of PSAD holds if also men with PIRADS >= 2 were included.

Conclusion In this Chinese cohort of biopsy naïve men a TBx approach can aid in improved detection of csPCa. Omitting SBx would results in missing csPCa cases. An upfront risk stratification step with the use of PSAD is advised although the optimal PSAD cut-off in Asian men most likely differs from the generally advised cut-off of 0.15 ng/ml/ml.

Keywords: Targeted biopsy, MRI, Prostate carcinoma, PSA density, Diagnosis

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How to Cite
ZHANG, Kai et al. The Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer in Chinese Biopsy Naïve Men. The Role of Mpmri and Targeted Biopsy and Risk Stratification Using PSA Density. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 8, aug. 2021. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 31 jan. 2023. doi:
Research Articles


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