The The Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Blood Flow

Main Article Content

Tameika Romayne James Charah Watson Dagogo Pepple

Abstract

Abstract


Background: This study is based on the premise that while consumption of cannabis has increased for medicinal and recreational purposes there has also been an increase in adverse events seemingly associated with cannabis usage.


Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) separately and in combination on blood flow.


Method: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of five rats each. Six of the test groups received different concentrations of THC and CBD (1 and 2 mg/kg body weight) respectively, while the seventh group received an extract with a combination of THC and CBD (2 mg/kg body weight) in a one to one ratio. The control group received the vehicle only. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally on alternate days for five days. Blood flow readings were taken at 0, 15, 30, 45 & 60 minute intervals using the CODA non-invasive blood pressure system.


Results: The results indicate that blood flow decreased with increasing THC concentration and was significant (p < 0.05) at 45 minutes with 2 mg/kg dose. CBD caused an increase in blood flow with increasing concentrations and this was also significant (p < 0.05) at 45 minutes with 2 mg/kg dose. The extract however caused a non-significant decrease in blood flow.


Conclusion: The results suggest that THC and CBD have opposing effects on blood flow separately, but when used in combination THC seems to exert a greater effect on blood flow than CBD.

Article Details

How to Cite
JAMES, Tameika Romayne; WATSON, Charah; PEPPLE, Dagogo. The The Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Blood Flow. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 10, oct. 2021. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2541>. Date accessed: 28 nov. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v9i10.2541.
Section
Research Articles

References

1. Hanuš LO, Meyer SM, Muñoz E, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Appendino G. Phytocannabinoids: a unified critical inventory. Natural product reports. 2016;33(12):1357-1392.
2. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Current drug safety. 2011;6(4):237-249.
3. Crime UNOoDa. World Drug Report 2019 (United Nations Publication, Sales No. E.19. X. 8). Report.
4. Singh A, Saluja S, Kumar A, et al. Cardiovascular Complications of Marijuana and Related Substances: A Review. Cardiology and Therapy. 2018;7(1):45-59.
5. Lafaye G, Karila L, Blecha L, Benyamina A. Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2017;19(3):309-316.
6. Richter JS, Quenardelle V, Rouyer O, et al. A Systematic Review of the Complex Effects of Cannabinoids on Cerebral and Peripheral Circulation in Animal Models. Front Physiol. 2018;9:622-622.
7. Watson SJ, Benson JA, Jr, Joy JE. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base: A Summary of the 1999 Institute of Medicine Report. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2000;57(6):547-552.
8. Nair AB, Jacob S. A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and human. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2016;7(2):27-31.
9. Subramaniam VN, Menezes AR, DeSchutter A, Lavie CJ. The Cardiovascular Effects of Marijuana: Are the Potential Adverse Effects Worth the High? Missouri Medicine. 2019;116(2):146.
10. Stanley CP, Hind WH, O'Sullivan SE. Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;75(2):313-322.
11. Jadoon KA, Tan GD, O'Sullivan SE. A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study. JCI Insight. 2017;2(12):e93760.
12. Sultan SR, Millar SA, England TJ, O'Sullivan SE. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Haemodynamic Effects of Cannabidiol. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;8(81).
13. Wolff V, Armspach J-P, Lauer V, et al. Cannabis-related Stroke Myth or Reality? Stroke. 2013:558-563.
14. Grotenhermen F. Clinical Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. 2004:29-78.
15. Hložek T, Uttl L, Kadeřábek L, et al. Pharmacokinetic and behavioural profile of THC, CBD, and THC+CBD combination after pulmonary, oral, and subcutaneous administration in rats and confirmation of conversion in vivo of CBD to THC. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;27(12):1223-1237.
16. Grotenhermen F. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2003;42(4):327-360.
17. Turner PV, Brabb T, Pekow C, Vasbinder MA. Administration of substances to laboratory animals: routes of administration and factors to consider. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011;50(5):600-613.
18. Liu J, Gao B, Mirshahi F, et al. Functional CB1 cannabinoid receptors in human vascular endothelial cells. Biochem J. 2000;346 Pt 3:835-840.
19. Latif Z, Garg N. The Impact of Marijuana on the Cardiovascular System: A Review of the Most Common Cardiovascular Events Associated with Marijuana Use. J Clin Med. 2020;9(6):1925.