`You Can’t Be in Grade 12 and Don`T Have a Kid`. Boys’ Masculine Conversations Towards Impregnating in Namibian Schools: A Case Study of the Kavango East Region

Main Article Content

Faustinus Shikukutu Prevanand Labby Ramrathan


The prevalence rate of adolescent pregnancies seems to be escalating in Namibia especially in Kavango East region. This study sought to find out the contribution boy`s masculine discourses made to teenage pregnancy in Kavango East Region. To answer the research problem, a qualitative research design using an interpretive paradigm was used. The study drew on in-depth, focus group and individual interviews with a diverse sample of 42 adolescent males aged 17 – 20 years in schools of Kavango East region in Namibia.

Findings of this study revealed that boys’ masculine discourses play a significant role in determining teenage pregnancy in Namibian schools, especially for the inexperienced boys who listen to the discussions and attempt to experiment with sexual intercourse. Boys’ narratives regarding masculinity, sex, sexuality, and The article further foregrounds the imperative of addressing the need for more open communication on matters of sexuality with young people to be encouraged – especially with boys who are the main perpetrators of teenage pregnancy. Finally, more comprehensive gender education at school and traditional level should be provided to address gender disparity which consequently leads to teenage pregnancy.

Article Details

How to Cite
SHIKUKUTU, Faustinus; RAMRATHAN, Prevanand Labby. `You Can’t Be in Grade 12 and Don`T Have a Kid`. Boys’ Masculine Conversations Towards Impregnating in Namibian Schools: A Case Study of the Kavango East Region. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 4, apr. 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2691>. Date accessed: 03 dec. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v10i4.2691.
Case Reports


1. Odejimi O, Bellingham-Young D. Teenage pregnancy in Africa: Trend and determinants in the 21st century. Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement.2016; 1(1): 12-20.
2. Mkwananzi S. The role of family dynamics in teenage pregnancy and childbearing in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Odimegwu, C.O. (ed.) Family demography and post-2015 development agenda in Africa (pp. 355-377). Springer. 2015.
3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Early and unintended pregnancy & the education sector: Evidence review and recommendations, unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002515/ 251509E.pdf. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2017.
4. Lillian P, Mumbango T. (2015). Statistical modelling of adolescent pregnancy in Namibia. Journal of Nursing and Care. 2015; 4(262). Retrieved from: doi: 10.4172/2167-1168.1000262
5. Darroch J, Woog V, Bankole, A., Ashford LS. Adding it up: Costs and benefits of meeting the contraceptive needs of adolescents. New York: Guttmacher Institute. 2016.
6. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Girlhood, not motherhood: Preventing adolescent pregnancy. New York: UNFPA. 2015.
7. Gunawardena N, Fantaye AW, Yaya S. Predictors of pregnancy among young people
in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and narrative synthesis. BMJ Global Health.2019; 201, 4.
8. Molosiwa S. Moswela B. Girl-pupil dropout in secondary schools in Botswana: Influencing factors, prevalence, and consequences. International Journal of Business and Social Science.2012; 3(7): 265-271.
9. Nyakubega P. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary school
students. A study from Tanga-Tanzania. Dar es Salaam Medical Students' Journal.2010; 16(1): 31-33.
10. Indongo N. Analysis of Factors Influencing Teenage Pregnancy in Namibia. Medical
Research Archives, [S.l.].2020; 8 (6).
11. Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resources and Community. Report on the motion on the high rate of teenage pregnancy in Namibia. Republic of Namibia:
12. Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K. Research methods in education (5th ed.). London: Routledge Falmer. 2000.
13. Connell RW, Messerschmidt JW. Hegemonic masculinity rethinking the concept.
Gender & Society. 2005; 19(6): 829-859.
14. Bhana D. "I'm the best in maths. Boys rule, girls drool." Masculinities, mathematics,
and primary schooling. Perspectives in Education. 2005; 15(3): 1-10.
15. Chimanzi L. Masculinity construction: Grade 7 boys’ relations with girls at a township
primary school in Gauteng East. MA dissertation. University of South Africa, South
16. Itulua-Abumere F. Understanding men and masculinity in modern society. Open Journal of Social Science Research. 2013; 1(2): 42-45.
17. Schaalma H, Kaaya, SF. Health education and the promotion of reproductive health: Theory and evidence-based development and diffusion of interventions programmes. In promoting adolescent sexual and reproductive health in East and Southern Africa. Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. 2008.
18. Kar SK, Choudhury A, Singh, AP. Understanding normal development of adolescent
sexuality: A bumpy ride. Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences.2015; 8(2): 70-74.
19. Edinyang SD. The significance of social learning theories in the teaching of social studies education. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research.2016; 2(1): 40-45.
20. Bandura A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1977.
21. Murray MA. An exploration of negative family factors and substance use amongst
adolescents: The lasting effects of family substance use, parental criminality, and parental corporal punishment. Master`s thesis. Michigan: Grand Valley State University. 2015.
22. Akers R.L, Sellers CS. Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and application (4th ed). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing; 2004.
23. McFadden P. Sex, sexuality, and the problems of AIDS in Africa. In Meena, R. (ed.), Gender in Southern Africa: Conceptual and theoretical issues (pp. 157-195). Harare: Sapes Books.1992.
24. Fleming P.J, Barrington C, Pearce, LD, Lerebours L, Donastorg Y, Brito MO. I feel like more of a man: A mixed methods study of masculinity, sexual performance, and circumcision for HIV prevention. Journal of Sex Research.2016; 54(1): 42-54.
25. Spiering J. "Discourses of adolescence in interpretations and responses to literature." PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa. 2018.
26. Mtenga S, Shamba, DD, Wamoyi J, Kakoko D, Haafkens J, Mongi AS. et al. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural south eastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: A qualitative study. Sexually transmitted infections. 2015; 91(8): 576-580.