- Risk Communication based on Gender Differences of COVID-19 Related Trusted Information Sources: Insights from the Generation Z Cohort

Main Article Content

Irene (Eirini) Kamenidou, Prof. Dr http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8213-5843 Spyridon Mamalis, Prof. Dr http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3035-6385 Aikaterini Stavrianea, Assistant Professor, Dr. Evangelia-Zoi Bara, M.Ed., BA, http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6634-0492 Ifigeneia Mylona, Assistant Professor, Dr. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4880-8132 Stavros Pavlidis, Dr. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2595-8341

Abstract

From the initial outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan, with the newly identified virus named “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2), different infectious variants have emerged, confirming the importance of preventive measures. Governments invest resources in information diffusion regarding the SARS-CoV-2 virus and variants and precautious measures. In public health emergencies and pandemic situations, trust is critical in risk communication and risk management and trusted information providers and communication channels may lead to certain desired behavior.


Objectives:


The focus of this research is to examine what information sources (providers and communication channels) the Greek generation Z cohort trusts, in information diffusion regarding the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the COVID-19 disease. It also examines if gender differences exist based on trust.


Methods


Eight information providers and six communication channels were tested for Gen Zers level of trust. An electronically distributed questionnaire collected data over a six-month period (N=1411) in 2020 (from June 1 to November 30, 2020), employing a nonprobability sampling method targeting the Generation Z cohort.


Results


Results reveal that the most trusted provider for COVID-19 related information are doctors and scientists, while the other unofficial information providers are more trusted than official. Published academic/scientific journals with COVID-19 related research is the most trusted communication channel. Gender comparisons for information providers uncovered seven statistically significant differences and one for communication channels.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
KAMENIDOU, Irene (Eirini) et al. - Risk Communication based on Gender Differences of COVID-19 Related Trusted Information Sources:. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 4, apr. 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2746>. Date accessed: 19 may 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v10i4.2746.
Section
Research Articles

References

1. WHO. WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Accessed on September 11, 2021. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-directorgeneral-s-opening-remarks-at-the-mediabriefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020
2. JHU. COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at John Hopkins University. 2020. Accessed November 26, 2021. http://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
3. Fauci AS, Lane CL, Redfield RR. Covid-19—Navigating the Uncharted. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020; 382: 1268–1269. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2002387
4. WHO, Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants. Updated February 2022. Accessed February 16, 2022. https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants/
5. Aguirre-Duarte N. Can people with asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic COVID-19 infect others: a systematic review of primary data. medRxiv, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.08.20054023
6. Ma Y, Xu QN, Wang FL, et al. Characteristics of asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Jinan, China. Microbes Infect. 2020; 22: 212-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2020.04.011.
7. Kamenidou IE, Stavrianea A, Mamalis S, et al. Knowledge assessment of covid-19 symptoms: Gender differences and communication routes for the generation z cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020; 17: 6964. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196964
8. Hansen MA, Johansson I, Sadowski K, et al. The partisan impact on local government dissemination of COVID-19 information: Assessing US County government websites. CJPS/RCSP. 2021; 54: 150-162. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008423920000918
9. Jennings FJ. Where to turn? The influence of information source on belief and behavior. Journal of Risk Research. 2019; 22: 909-918. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2017.1422788
10. Renn O, Levine D. Credibility and Trust in Risk Communication. In Kasperson R.E., Stallen P.J.M. (Eds). Communicating Risks to the Public. Technology, Risk, and Society. Springer, Dordrecht; 1991: 175-217.
11. Vaughan E, Tinker T, Effective health risk communication about pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations. Am. J. Public Health. 2009; 99: 324-332. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.162537
12. Ali SH, Foreman J, Tozan Y, et al. Trends and predictors of COVID-19 information sources and their relationship with knowledge and beliefs related to the pandemic: Nationwide cross-sectional study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020; 6: e21071. https://doi.org/10.2196/21071
13. Figueiras MJ, Ghorayeb J, Coutinho MV, et al. Levels of trust in information sources as a predictor of protective health behaviors during COVID-19 pandemic: A UAE cross-sectional study. Front. Psychol. 2021; 2780. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.633550
14. Kamenidou IE, Stavrianea A, Liava C. Achieving a Covid-19 free country: Citizens preventive measures and communication pathways. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020: 17: 4633. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134633
15. National Public Health Organization. Daily reports on COVID-19, 2020. Accessed June 21, 2020. https://eody.gov.gr/epidimiologika-statistika-dedomena/ektheseis-covid-19/imerisies-ektheseis-covid-19-2020/
16. McCrindle M, Wolfinger E. The ABC of XYZ: Understanding the Global Generation. UNSW Press; 2011.
17. Price D, Bonsaksen T, Ruffolo M, et al. Perceived Trust in Public Authorities Nine Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-National Study. Soc. Sci. 2021; 10: 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090349
18. Falcone R, Sapienza A. How COVID-19 Changed the Information Needs of Italian Citizens. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020; 17: 6988. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196988
19. Rana IA, Bhatti SS, Aslam AB, et al. COVID-19 risk perception and coping mechanisms: Does gender make a difference? Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 2021; 55: 102096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102096
20. Maykrantz SA, Gong T, Petrolino AV, et al. How Trust in Information Sources Influences Preventative Measures Compliance during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2021; 18: 5867. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115867
21. Figueiras MJ, Ghorayeb J, Coutinho M, et al. Sources of information, trust, and protective health behaviors during COVID-19 pan-demic: A UAE cross-sectional study, 2020. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/fsyxn
22. Brown R, Coventry L, Pepper G. Information seeking, personal experiences, and their association with COVID-19 risk perceptions: demographic and occupational inequalities. J. Risk Res. 2021; 24: 506-520. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2021.1908403
23. Castelfranchi C. Falcone R. Trust and control: A dialectic link. Appl. Artif. Intell. 2000; 14: 799-823. https://doi.org/10.1080/08839510050127560
24. Dittrich R, Francis B, Hatzinger R, et al. A paired comparison approach for the analysis of sets of Likert-scale responses. Statistical Modelling. 2007; 7: 3-28. https://doi.org/10.1177/1471082X0600700102
25. Lehmann DR, Cupta S, Steckel JH. Marketing Research. Addison Wesley Longman; 1998.
26. Spector P. Summated Rating Scale Construction; SAGE Publications; 1992.
27. Stavrakas M, Menexes G, Triaridis S, Bamidis P, Constantinidis J, Karkos PD. Objective structured assessment of technical skill in temporal bone dissection: validation of a novel tool. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2021 Jun;135(6):518-28. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022215121001201
28. Sabri S. Item analysis of student comprehensive test for research in teaching beginner string ensemble using model based teaching among music students in public universities. International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(12):1-4.
29. WHO. Emergencies: Risk communication. Accessed March 29, 2021.
https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/emergencies-risk-communication
30. Zhang L, Li H, Chen K. Effective risk communication for public health emergency: Reflection on the COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan, China. Healthcare. 2020; 8: 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8010064
31. Lohiniva AL, Sane J, Sibenberg K, et al. Understanding coronavirus disease (COVID-19) risk perceptions among the public to enhance risk communication efforts: a practical approach for outbreaks, Finland, February 2020. Eurosurveillance. 2020; 25: 200031.
32. Cerdá-Mansilla E, Rubio N, Campo S. Critical success factors for sharing information and knowledge of COVID-19 through Twitter. Knowl. Manag. Res. Pract. 2021; 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/14778238.2021.189568
33. Gehrau V, Fujarski S, Lorenz H, et al. The Impact of Health Information Exposure and Source Credibility on COVID-19 Vaccination Intention in Germany. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2021; 18: 4678. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094678
34. Dobó R. Source Prestige in Covid-19 Communication. In International Scientific Conference Strategic Management and Decision Support Systems in Strategic Management; 2021; 111-119. https://doi.org/10.46541/978-86-7233-397-8_127
35. Pramiyanti A, Mayangsari ID, Nuraeni R, et al. Public Perception on Transparency and Trust in Government Information Released During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Asian J. Public Opin. Res. 2020; 8: 351–376. https://doi.org/10.15206/AJPOR.2020.8.3.351
36. Hartley K, Jarvis DS. Policymaking in a low-trust state: legitimacy, state capacity, and responses to COVID-19 in Hong Kong. Policy Soc. 2020; 39: 403-423. https://doi.org/10.1080/14494035.2020.1783791
37. Hallin DC, Papathanassopoulos S. Political clientelism and the media: southern Europe and Latin America in comparative perspective. Media Cult. Soc. 2002; 24: 175–195. https://doi.org/10.1177/016344370202400202
38. Hernandez FJ. Trust in the Pharmaceutical Sector, Analysis of drug safety controversies by means of drug life cycles, Publisher: J.F. Hernandez; 2015.