The Importance of In Person School Activities Despite COVID-19: A Review of the Literature

Main Article Content

Amanda M. Delgado Joseph Antony Elengickal Patrice Z. Collins Sabin Shakya Rodger David MacArthur

Abstract

 


In Spring 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic reached the United States, schools closed to mitigate the spread of the virus. While online learning platforms provided alternatives to in-person education, children of all ages and educational needs faced unique challenges adapting to new methods of education delivery. Developmental and educational effects varied between children at different grade levels. Through this review, we outline challenges faced by students based on their stage of education. We also consider the effects of the pandemic on special education, disadvantaged populations, and students with mental health challenges. Moreover, we suggest that in-person activities are paramount to a child’s educational and personal development, and they should be continued in the setting of appropriate safety guidelines, even in the midst of a global pandemic.


 

Article Details

How to Cite
DELGADO, Amanda M. et al. The Importance of In Person School Activities Despite COVID-19: A Review of the Literature. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 5, june 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2784>. Date accessed: 30 june 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v10i5.2784.
Section
Review Articles

References

1. Children and COVID-19: State-Level Data Report. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.aap.org/en/pages/2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19-infections/children-and-covid-19-state-level-data-report. Published February 2021. Accessed May 2021.
2. Lieberman M. Schools Should Prepare for Coronavirus Outbreaks, CDC Officials Warn. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/leadership/schools-should-prepare-for-coronavirus-outbreaks-cdc-officials-warn/2020/02. Published February 25, 2020. Accessed May 1, 2021.
3. Bazzaz D, Blethen R. Bothell High School closed Thursday-Friday in ‘abundance of caution’ over coronavirus fears. The Seattle Times. https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/health/bothell-high-school-closed-thursday-in-an-abundance-of-caution-over-coronavirus-fears-after-staffer-traveled-internationally. Published February 27, 2020. Accessed May 1, 2021.
4. Morton N. Northshore’s lesson for Washington schools amid the coronavirus closure: Online learning is hard to get right. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from https://www.seattletimes.com/education-lab/northshores-lesson-for-washington-schools-amid-the-coronavirus-closure-online-learning-is-hard-to-get-right. Published April 12, 2020. Accessed May 1, 2021.
5. Back to school statistics. National Center for Education Statistics. NCES. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=372. Updated 2021. Accessed August 1, 2021.
6. Strauss V. Schools start closing – or delay reopening – as covid-19 cases jump across the country. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/11/14/schools-start-closing-or-delay-reopening-covid-19-cases-jump-across-country. Published November 14, 2020. Accessed August 1, 2021.
7. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for Emergency Use in Adolescents in Another Important Action in Fight Against Pandemic. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine-emergency-use. Published May 10, 2021. Accessed August 1, 2021.
8. FDA Authorizes Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for Emergency Use in Children 5 through 11 Years of Age. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-authorizes-pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine-emergency-use-children-5-through-11-years-age. Published October 29, 2021. Accessed November 1, 2021.
9. COVID-19 Vaccines for Children and Teens. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/recommendations/children-teens.html?s_cid=11368:covid%20vaccine%20for%20children%20under%2016:sem.ga:p:RG:GM:gen:PTN:FY2. Updated 2021. Accessed August 1, 2021.
10. K-12 Schools. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/k-12-guidance.html. Published 2021. Accessed November 1, 2021.
11. COVID-19 Prevention Strategies Most Important for Safe In-Person Learning in K-12 Schools. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/k-12-guidance.html#anchor_1625661937509. Published 2021. Accessed November 1, 2021.
12. Lewis K, Kuhfeld M, Ruzek E, McEachin A. Learning during COVID-19: Reading and math achievement in the 2020-21 school year. NWEA. Published July 21, 2021. Accessed August 1, 2021.
13. Curtis H, Werth L. 2015. Fostering Student Success and Engagement in a K-12 online school. Journal of Online Learning Research, 1(2), 163–190. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1148836. Accessed August 1, 2021
14. Smith R, Clark T, Blomeyer R. 2005. A synthesis of new research on K-12 online learning. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tom-Clark-5/publication/304827914_A_Synthesis_of_New_Research_on_K-12_Online_Learning/links/577c06ca08aece6c20fccf6f/A-Synthesis-of-New-Research-on-K-12-Online-Learning.pdf. Accessed December 7, 2021.
15. Enrollment rates of young children. National Center for Education Statistics. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator/cfa. Updated May 2021. Accessed August 1, 2021.
16. Mehta NS, Mytton OT, Mullins EWS, Fowler TA, Falconer CL, Murphy OB, Langenberg C, Jayatunga WJP, Eddy DH, Nguyen-Van-Tam, JS (2020). SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): What Do We Know About Children? A Systematic Review. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 71(9), 2469–2479. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa556
17. Khera N, Santesmasses D, Kerepesi C, Gladyshev VN. COVID-19 mortality rate in children is U-shaped. Aging. 2021; 13(16), 19954–19962. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203442.
18. López-Bueno R, López-Sánchez GF, Casajús JA, Calatayud J, Tully MA, Smith L. Potential health-related behaviors for pre-school and school-aged children during COVID-19 lockdown: A narrative review. Preventive Medicine. 2021; 143, 106349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106349
19. Sprang G, Silman M. Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents and youth after health-related disasters. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. 2013; 7(1), 105–110. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2013.22
20. Burkart S, Parker H, Weaver RG, Beets MW, Jones A, Adams EL, Chaput JP, Armstrong B. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on elementary schoolers' physical activity, sleep, screen time and diet: A quasi-experimental interrupted time series study. Pediatric obesity. 2021; e12846. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12846
21. Frazier A, Elder G Jr. Early childhood education today. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1968; 13, 465-473.
22. Dunton GF, Do B, Wang SD. Early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in children living in the U.S. BMC public health. 2020; 20(1), 1351. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09429-3
23. Margolius, M., Doyle Lynch, A., Pufall Jones, E., Hynes, M. The State of Young People during COVID-19: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey of High School Youth (ED606305). ERIC. 2020. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED606305. Accessed November 1, 2021.
24. SAT program results capture impact of COVID on class of 2021. College Board Newsroom. https://newsroom.collegeboard.org/sat-program-results-capture-impact-of-covid-on-class-of-2021. Published September 15, 2021. Accessed November 1, 2021.
25. Pietrobelli A, Pecoraro L, Ferruzzi A, Heo M, Faith M, Zoller T, Antoniazzi F, Piacentini G, Feambach SN, Heymsfield SB. Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Lifestyle Behaviors in Children with Obesity Living in Verona, Italy: A Longitudinal Study. Obesity. 2020; 28(8), 1382–1385. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22861
26. Janssen X, Martin A, Hughes AR, Hill CM, Kotronoulas G, Hesketh KR. Associations of screen time, sedentary time and physical activity with sleep in under 5s: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2020; 49, 101226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2019.101226
27. Pavlovic A, DeFina LF, Natale BL, Thiele SE, Walker TJ, Craig DW, Vint GR, Leonard D, Haskell WL, Kohl HW. Keeping children healthy during and after COVID-19 pandemic: meeting youth physical activity needs. BMC public health. 2021; 21(1), 485. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10545-x
28. Steimle S, Gassman-Pines A, Johnson AD, Hines CT, Ryan RM. Understanding patterns of food insecurity and family well-being amid the COVID-19 pandemic using daily surveys. Child development. 2021; 92(5), e781–e797. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13659
29. Mickells GE, Figueroa J, West KW, Wood A, McElhanon BO. Adherence to Masking Requirement During the COVID-19 Pandemic by Early Elementary School Children. The Journal of school health. 2021; 91(7), 555–561. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.13033
30. Healthy Schools. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/facts.htm. Updated 2021. Accessed November 25, 2021.
31. The State of Childhood Obesity. State Policies to Prevent Obesity. https://stateofchildhoodobesity.org/state-policy/policies/pemiddle. Published 2021. Accessed November 25, 2021.
32. COVID-19 Stats: Percentage of Middle and High School Students Aged 13–21 Years Attending In-Person Classes Who Reported Observing Fellow Students Wearing a Mask All the Time, by School Setting and Activity — United States, October 2020. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report. 2021; 70:223. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7006a5
33. López-Bueno R, Calatayud J, Andersen LL, Casana J, Ezzatvar Y, Casajus JA, Lopez-Sanchez GF, Smith L. Cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents before and after the COVID-19 confinement: a prospective cohort study. European Journal of Pediatriatrics. 2021;180, 2287–2293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04029-8
34. Mueller AS, Diefendorf S, Abrutyn S, Beardall KA, Millar K, O'Reilly L, Steinberg H, Watkins JT. Youth mask-wearing and social-distancing behavior at in-person high school graduations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2021; 68(3), 464–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.12.123
35. Baweja R, Brown SL, Edwards EM, Murray MJ. COVID-19 Pandemic and Impact on Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2021; 1–10. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-04950-9
36. Stelitano L, Mulhern C, Feistel K, Gomez-Bendaña H. How are teachers educating students with disabilities during the pandemic? RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1121-1.html. Published April 8, 2021. Accessed November 25, 2021.
37. Manivannan M, Jogalekar MP, Kavitha MS, Maran BAV, Gangadaran P. A mini-review on the effects of COVID-19 on younger individuals. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2021; 246(3), 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370220975118
38. Gazmararian J, Weingart R, Campbell K, Cronin T, Ashta J. Impact of covid ‐19 pandemic on the mental health of students from 2 semi‐rural high schools in Georgia*. Journal of School Health. 2021; 91(5), 356–369. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.13007
39. Education in a Pandemic: The Disparate Impacts of COVID-19 on America's Students. Department of Education of the United States of America. https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/20210608-impacts-of-covid19.pdf. Published 2021. Accessed November 1, 2021.
40. Hertz MF, Barrios LC. Adolescent mental health, COVID-19, and the value of school-community partnerships. Injury Prevention. 2020; 044050. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2020-044050
41. Fegert JM, Vitiello B, Plener PL, Clemens V. Challenges and burden of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for child and adolescent mental health: A narrative review to highlight clinical and research needs in the acute phase and the long return to normality. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 2020; 14, 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-020-00329-3
42. Graves JM, Abshire DA, Amiri S, Mackelprang JL. Disparities in technology and broadband internet access across Rurality. Family & Community Health, Publish Ahead of Print. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1097/fch.0000000000000306
43. Causey J, Harnack-Eber A, Ryu M, Shapiro D. High School Benchmarks: COVID-19 Special Analysis. Update & Correction. National College Progression Rates. ERIC. 2020. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED613158.
44. Kainth MK, Goenka PK, Williamson KA, Fishbein JS, Subramony A, Barone S, Belfer JA, Feld LM, Krief WI, Palumbo N, Rajan S, Rocker J, Scotto T, Sharma S, Sokoloff WC, Schleien C, Rubin LG. Early experience of COVID-19 in a US children's hospital. Pediatrics. 2020; 146(4). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-003186
45. Lessler J, Grabowski MK, Grantz KH, Badillo-Goicoechea E, Metcalf CJ, Lupton-Smith C, Azman AS, Stuart EA. Household covid-19 risk and in-person schooling. Science. 2021; 372(6546), 1092–1097. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abh2939
46. Sinha IP, Harwood R, Semple MG, Hawcutt DB, Thursfield R, Narayan O, Kenny SE, Viner R, Hewer SL, Southern KW. Covid-19 infection in children. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020; 8(5), 446–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600(20)30152-1
47. Brisca G, Mariani M, Andrea Rotulo G, Pirlo D, Romanengo M, Castagnola E, Piccotti E, Moscatelli A. Clinical course of Covid‐19 in children with pre‐existing medical conditions. Acta Paediatrica. 2021; 110(4), 1291–1292. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15730
48. Ludvigsson JF. The first eight months of Sweden’s COVID‐19 strategy and the key actions and actors that were involved. Acta Paediatrica. 2020; 10.1111/apa.15582. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15582
49. Baral S, Chandler R, Prieto RG, Gupta S, Mishra S, Kulldorff M. Leveraging epidemiological principles to evaluate Sweden’s COVID-19 response. Annals of Epidemiology. 2021; 54, 21–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.11.005
50. Mens H, Koch A, Chaine M, Bengaard Andersen A. The Hammer vs Mitigation—A comparative retrospective register study of the Swedish and Danish national responses to the COVID‐19 pandemic in 2020. Apmis. 2021; 10.1111/apm.13133. https://doi.org/10.1111/apm.13133
51. Lohmann MJ, Randolph KM, Oh JH. Classroom Management Strategies for Hyflex Instruction: Setting Students Up for Success in the Hybrid Environment. Early Childhood Education Journal. 2021; 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-021-01201-5
52. Ismail SA, Saliba V, Lopez Bernal J, Ramsay ME, Ladhani SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings: a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of infection clusters and outbreaks in England. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2021; 21(3), 344–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30882-3
53. Nakachi K, Kawabe K, Hosokawa R, Yoshino A, Horiuchi F, Ueno SI. Differences in Psychological and Behavioral Changes between Children following School Closure due to COVID-19. Psychiatry journal. 2021; 5567732. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5567732
54. Kids Under Pressure. Challenge Success. https://challengesuccess.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/CS-NBC-Study-Kids-Under-Pressure-PUBLISHED.pdf. Published 2021. Accessed November 1, 2021.