Main Article Content
In Australia and many other high and middle-income countries diagnosis of the most curable stages of breast cancer, early breast cancer (EBC), in women by population based mammographic screening began after 1990. In many of these same and other high and middle-income countries administering adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy after surgical complete resection of EBC (adjuvant therapy) also began in the 1990s. Some populations then underwent declines in breast cancer mortality that were recorded in population-based Cancer Registries that were attributed to either mammographic screening and/or adjuvant therapy. In only a few populations, for example, in the State of Victoria Australia from 1986-2019 long term trends in the incidence of breast cancer stages at diagnosis have been recorded by the population-based Victorian Cancer registry (VCR). These long-term stage trends have shown that advanced stages of breast cancer have increased or remained stable in those populations, so mammographic screening could not have directly caused the recorded declines in breast cancer mortality in their population-based Cancer Registries. In contrast in Victoria Australia adjuvant therapy use can explain all the recorded mortality decline.
The Medical Research Archives grants authors the right to publish and reproduce the unrevised contribution in whole or in part at any time and in any form for any scholarly non-commercial purpose with the condition that all publications of the contribution include a full citation to the journal as published by the Medical Research Archives.
2. Fisher B. From Halsted to Prevention and Beyond: Advances in the Management of Breast Cancer During the Twentieth Century. European Journal of Cancer 1999; 35:1963-73.2.
3. Shapiro S, Evidence on screening for breast cancer from a randomized trial. Cancer 1977; 39:2772-82.
4. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention; Volume 7 Breast Cancer Screening. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organisation; IARC Press, Lyon, 2002.
5. Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council. Breast Cancer Screening Evaluation Committee (1990) Breast cancer screening in Australia: future directions. Australian Institute of Health: Prevention Program Evaluation Series No 1. AGPS, Canberra.
6. Moss SM, Cuckle H, Evan A, et al. Effect of mammographic screening from age 40 years on breast cancer mortality at 10 years’ follow-up: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 368: 2053–60.
7. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention; Volume 15 Breast cancer screening 2nd edition. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organisation, IARC Press, Lyon, 2016.
8. Gøtzsche PC, Olsen O. Is screening for breast cancer with mammography justifiable? Lancet 2000; 355: 129–34.
9. Nyström N, Andersson I, Bjurstam B, et al. Long-term effects of mammography screening: updated overview of the Swedish randomised trials. Lancet 2002; 359: 909–19.
10. English DR, Burton RC, Donovan R et al. Evaluation of an aid to the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions in general practice: a controlled trial randomized by practice. BMJ; 327: 375-378, 2003.
11. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual 7th edition, 2010. American College of Surgeons (ACS), Chicago, Illinois. Part VII Breast pages 347-76.
12. Burton RC, Stevenson, C. Effect of a quarter century of adjuvant therapy and mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in the State of Victoria, Australia. JAMA Network Open 2020;3(6):e208249. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8249.
13. Cancer in Victoria; Statistics and Trends 2010-2019: https://www.cancervic.org.au/research/vcr/publications
14. Jacklyn G, McGeechan K, Irwig L, et al. Trends in stage-specific breast cancer incidence in New South Wales, Australia: insights into the effects of 25 years of screening mammography. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017; 166:843–854.
15. Lousdal ML, Kristiansen IS, Møller B, Støvring H. Effect of organised mammography screening on stage-specific incidence in Norway: population study. BJC 2016; 114: 590–96.
16. Autier P, Boniol M, Koechlin A, Pizot C, Boniol M. Effectiveness of and overdiagnosis from mammography screening in the Netherlands: population-based study. BMJ 2017;359:j5224.
17. Bonnadonna G, Brusamolino E, Valagussa P, et al. Combination chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in operable breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1976; 294: 405-10.
18. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 2005; 365:1687-717.
19. Curigliano G, Burstein HJ, Winer EP et al. De-escalating and escalating treatments for early-stage breast cancer: the St. Gallen International Expert Consensus Conference on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2017. Annals of Oncology 28: 1700–1712, 2017, doi:10.1093/annonc/mdx308.
20. Vaidya JS, Wenz F, Bulsara M, Tobias JS et al on behalf of the TARGIT trialists’ group. Risk-adapted targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole-breast radiotherapy for breast cancer: 5-year results for local control and overall survival from the TARGIT-A randomised trial. Lancet 2014; 383:603-613.