The Effects Of Vitamin D3 Supplementation On Muscle Physical Performance And Vitamin Status In A Physically Active Population: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Blind Intervention Study

Main Article Content

Jack Ransone Johann Bilsborough Kelsie D. Markin-Dufford


Objectives: This study aimed to determine if an eight-week supplementation of 50,000 IU of VitD3 will reverse deficiency in a physically active population.

Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 physically active collegiate subjects (age =23.21±1.52 yrs, weight =70.66±14.23 kg, height=171.18 ± 9.03 cm) volunteered to participate in the study.

Intervention(s): Before completing pre-testing performance measures and beginning supplementation, venous blood samples to assess baseline serum 25(OH)D levels were collected from the cubital vein.

Main Outcome Measures: Serum 25(OH)D levels and muscle performance metrics (bench press, vertical jump, and 40m sprint) were analyzed to determine differences between pre-test and post-test data of both the control and treatment groups, respectively.

Results: A repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels after supplementation (p < .001) with a more prominent increase in the treatment group. These analyses indicate that there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups (VitD3 vs. placebo) at pre-treatment measurement, and post-treatment serum 25(OH)D status increased at a greater magnitude for Vitamin D (VitD) compared to the placebo group, who showed a relatively small change in serum 25(OH)D levels. Prior to D3 supplementation 19 of 29 total subjects (66%) had serum 25(OH)D concentrations considered to be deficient (<32 ng/ml).

Conclusions: Total serum 25(OH)D concentration significantly increased and eliminated pathological deficiency in the supplementation group after eight weeks of supplementation with 50,000 IU of VitD3.  Muscle performance metrics increased over the treatment period but were not significantly increased between treatment and control.

Article Details

How to Cite
RANSONE, Jack; BILSBOROUGH, Johann; MARKIN-DUFFORD, Kelsie D.. The Effects Of Vitamin D3 Supplementation On Muscle Physical Performance And Vitamin Status In A Physically Active Population: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Blind Intervention Study. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 5, june 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 30 june 2022. doi:
Research Articles


1 Constantini NW, Arieli R, Chodick G, et al. High prevalence of vitamin d insufficiency in athletes and dancers. Clin J Sport Med 2010; 20(5):368–371. Doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f207f2.
2 Close GL, Russell J, Cobley JN, et al. Assessment of vitamin d concentration in non-supplemented professional athletes and healthy adults during the winter months in the UK: Implications for skeletal muscle function. J Sports Sci 2013; 31(4):344–353. Doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.733822.
3 Moran DS, McClung JP, Kohen T, et al. Vitamin d and physical performance. Sport Med 2013:601–611. Doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0036-y.
4 Forney LA, Earnest CP, Henagan TM, et al. Vitamin d status, body composition, and fitness measures in college-aged students. J Strength Cond Res 2014; 28(3):814–824. Doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a35ed0.
5 Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged ≥60 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80(3):752–758. Doi: 80/3/752 [pii].
6 Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, et al. Vitamin d status, trunk muscle strength, body sway, falls, and fractures among 237 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2001; 109(2):87–92. Doi: 10.1055/s-2001-14831.
7 Chatterjee S. Vitamin D, Optimal health and athletic performance: A review study. Int J Nutr Food Sci 2014; 3(6):526. Doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140306.16.
8 Bartoszewska M, Kamboj M, Patel DR. Vitamin d, muscle function, and exercise performance. Pediatr Clin North Am 2010:849–861. Doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2010.03.008.
9 Minshull C, Biant LC, Ralston SH, et al. A systematic review of the role of vitamin d on neuromuscular remodelling following exercise and injury. Calcif Tissue Int 2016:426–437. Doi: 10.1007/s00223-015-0099-x.
10 Chiang C, Ismaeel A, Griffis RB, et al. Effects of vitamin d supplementation on muscle strength in athletes a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 2016:1. Doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001518.
11 Heaton LE, Davis JK, Rawson ES, et al. Selected in-season nutritional strategies to enhance recovery for team sport athletes: a practical overview. Sport Med 2017:2201–2218. Doi: 10.1007/s40279-017-0759-2.
12 Backx E, Van Der Avoort C, Tieland M, et al. Seasonal variation in vitamin d status in elite athletes: A longitudinal study. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2017; 27(1):6–10. Doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0177.
13 Wolman R, Wyon MA, Koutedakis Y, et al. Vitamin d status in professional ballet dancers: Winter vs. summer. J Sci Med Sport 2013; 16(5):388–391. Doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.12.010.
14 Morton JP, Iqbal Z, Drust B, et al. Seasonal variation in vitamin d status in professional soccer players of the english premier league. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2012; 37(4):798–802. Doi: 10.1139/h2012-037.
15 Close GL, Leckey J, Patterson M, et al. The effects of vitamin d(3) supplementation on serum total 25[OH]D concentration and physical performance: a randomised dose-response study. Br J Sports Med 2013; 47(11):692–696. Doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091735.
16 Magee PJ, Pourshahidi LK, Wallace JMW, et al. Vitamin d status and supplementation in elite Irish athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013; 23(5):441–448. Doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.23.5.441.
17 Villacis D, Yi A, Jahn R, et al. Prevalence of abnormal vitamin d levels among division i ncaa athletes. Sports Health 2014; 6(4):340–347. Doi: 10.1177/1941738114524517.
18 Lewis RM, Redzic M, Thomas DT. The effects of season-long vitamin d supplementation on collegiate swimmers and divers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013; 23(5):431–440. Doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.23.5.431.
19 Farrokhyar F, Sivakumar G, Savage K, et al. Effects of vitamin d supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations and physical performance in athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sport Med 2017:2323–2339. Doi: 10.1007/s40279-017-0749-4.
20 Halliday TM, Peterson NJ, Thomas JJ, et al. Vitamin d status relative to diet, lifestyle, injury, and illness in college athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43(2):335–343. Doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181eb9d4d.
21 Baechle T, Earle R, Wathen D. Essentials of Strength and Conditioning. Hum Kinet Publ 2000:395–425. Doi: 10.1080/14763140208522788.
22 Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Stat Power Anal Behav Sci 1988:567. Doi: 10.1234/12345678.
23 Willis KS, Smith DT, Broughton KS, et al. Vitamin d status and biomarkers of inflammation in runners. Open Access J Sport Med 2012; 3:35–42. Doi: 10.2147/OAJSM.S31022.
24 Knutsen K V., Madar AA, Lagerløv P, et al. Does vitamin d improve muscle strength in adults? a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among ethnic minorities in Norway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99(1):194–202. Doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2647.
25 Larson-Meyer DE, Willis KS. Vitamin d and athletes. Curr Sports Med Rep 2010:220–226. Doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181e7dd45.
26 Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, et al. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin d from the Institute of Medicine: What clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96(1):53–58. Doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-2704.
27 The Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96(7):1911–1930. Doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385.
28 Fairbairn KA, Ceelen IJM, Skeaff CM, et al. Vitamin d3 supplementation does not improve sprint performance in professional rugby players: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention study. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018; 28(1):1–9. Doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0157.
29 Edouard P, Serra J-M, Lafleur M, et al. Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency in high-level athletics athletes. Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2016; 59S:e22. Doi: 10.1016/
30 Grimaldi AS, Parker BA, Capizzi JA, et al. 25(OH) Vitamin d is associated with greater muscle strength in healthy men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013; 45(1):157–162. Doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31826c9a78.