Melanoma mortality in Mexico
Main Article Content
Melanoma is the skin tumor with the highest morbidity and mortality with highly variable incidence rates that depend mainly on genetic-population, geographical and behavioral factors (Stengel, 2017). In our country we do not have a specialized, unified and vast oncology registry system that allows us to evaluate the historical behavior of neoplasms (incidence, prevalence and mortality) and our actions as health professionals. Previous information from different authors on melanoma mortality in Mexico coincides with an increase in mortality in the different historical contexts analyzed; this article updates the data from 2016, where a continuous increase in mortality was documented (Domínguez, 2018). Objective: To know the evolution of melanoma mortality in the last 23 years in Mexico from 1998 to 2020. Material and methods: The official information on melanoma mortality available in the dynamic cubes of the National System of Basic Information on Health (SINBA) and the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) was reviewed. The population estimates and projections were obtained from the National Population Council (CONAPO); the number of patients affiliated with the main health systems was obtained directly from the official electronic pages available from each institution and from INEGI. Results: The general mortality rate due to melanoma in Mexico has increased from 0.32*105 inhabitants in 1998 to 0.54*105 inhabitants in 2020, being the highest registered 0.61/10*5 in 2018 and since then with a tendency to stabilize and decline. Currently, the state with the highest mortality rate is Zacatecas with 0.90/10*5 and the lowest is reported in the state of Guerrero with 0.11/10*5. In terms of age groups, the most affected by this neoplasm is that of 60 years and over with a rate of 3.42/10*5 and the group of 0 to 29 years represents the lowest rate of 0.02/10*5. Regarding sex, mortality is higher for men with a rate of 0.60/10*5 and women 0.48/10*5. Conclusion: Melanoma mortality in Mexico has increased constantly for 21 consecutive years from 1998 to 2018, registering in this last year (2018) the historically highest mortality rate in our country. It should be noted that in the last two years of analysis in this study (2019 and 2020) the mortality rate has not increased, presenting a tendency to stabilize and decrease, something that had not occurred in the period of time studied and this fact is encouraging; In addition, this phenomenon may be influenced by the incorporation in the recent past of some innovative molecules in certain health systems and hospitals that were not previously available, a greater participation of our country in study protocols, and the ravages of the Sars-Cov 2 pandemic.
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