Twenty-Four Hour and One-Week Steady State Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids in Two Formulations of Cannabidiol and Cannabidiolic Acid Rich Hemp in Dogs

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David J. Tittle Joseph J Wakshlag Wayne S Schwark Alex Lyubimov Alexander Zakharov Beatriz Gomez


The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of a cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiolic acid-rich (CBDA) hemp extract in a sesame oil base and a soft gel capsule formulation. During acute twenty-four hour pharmacokinetic evaluation, maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was higher for all measurable components in the serum (CBD, CBDA, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA]) following soft gel administration versus the oil formulation. Similar times of maximal serum concentration (Tmax) were observed with both presentations.  Based on the area under the curve, a significant increase in CBDA absorption was observed following soft gel dosing.  Whilst comparable, the steady state pharmacokinetic data after one week of twice daily dosing shows an increased concentration of CBDA, with a slightly lower CBD concentration with soft gel administration compared to oil. Although THC and THCA concentrations remain comparably low from both presentations, THCA absorption was superior regardless of formulation. When examining acceptance, soft gels are associated with increased palatability and less rejection of oral dosing with oil. Dogs, and potentially even people, may show increasing tolerance to this soft gel formulation; as such consideration should be given to the ease of administration and superior CBDA absorption with the use of a soft gel formulation of a CBD/CBDA hemp blend. 

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TITTLE, David J. et al. Twenty-Four Hour and One-Week Steady State Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids in Two Formulations of Cannabidiol and Cannabidiolic Acid Rich Hemp in Dogs. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 7, july 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 apr. 2024. doi:
Research Articles


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