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Opioid use disorder (OUD) is an epidemic in the United States. In the past 12 months alone, there have been 75,000+ deaths attributed to opioid overdose: more than any other year in American history. Current pharmacotherapies for the treatment of OUD effectively suppress opioid withdrawal symptoms, but long-term relapse rates remain unacceptably high. Novel treatments for OUD are desperately needed to curb this epidemic. One target that has received considerable recent interest is the neuroimmune system. The neuroimmune system is anchored by glial cells, i.e., microglia and astrocytes, but neuroimmune signaling is known to influence neurons, including altering neurotransmission, synapse formation, and ultimately, brain function. Preclinical studies have shown that experimental attenuation of pro-inflammatory neuroimmune signaling modulates opioid addiction processes, including opioid reward, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms, which suggests potential therapeutic benefit in patients. Whereas the peripheral immune system in OUD patients has been studied for decades and is well-understood, little is known about the neuroimmune system in OUD patients or its viability as a treatment target. Herein, we review the literature describing relationships between opioid administration and the neuroimmune system, the influence of neuroimmune signaling on opioid addiction processes, and the therapeutic potential for targeting the neuroimmune system in OUD subjects using glial modulator medications.
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