Development of first Generation COVID-19 Vaccines: State-of the-Art Technologies and future Implications!

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Larry L Mweetwa Derrick D Tlhoiwe Tumelo Tlhoiwe Kabo Osmas Tshiamo Sody Mweetwa Munsaka Thatoyaone J Kenaope Getrude Mothibe Ogorogile Mokate Emmanuel T Oluwabusola


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or Coronavirus was initially detected in Wuhan China in December 2019 and has subsequently resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic. The disease presents asymptomatically in some of individuals yet also causes symptoms ranging from those associated with influenza and pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. The world is currently relying on physical (social) distancing, hygiene and repurposed medicines; however, it was predicted that an effective vaccine will be necessary to ensure comprehensive protection against COVID-19. There was a global effort to develop an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 with approximately 300 vaccines in clinical trials, and over 200 more in different stages of development and anticipated that their success will change research clinical trials processes. Although every one of these vaccines comes with its own particular set of characteristics and difficulties, they were all developed as a direct result of research and development efforts that were carried out on a scale that had never been seen before. It is the first time in the history of vaccination that a worldwide immunization campaign has begun during a time of severe pandemic activity that is defined by high virus transmission. This achievement marks an important milestone in the history of vaccination. More than anything else, the most important aspect of the new game change in drug design is that the traditional drug discovery rules have been rewritten. This is especially significant for the development of vaccines, as it is possible for all clinical trials to be accelerated, which would bring a vaccine or drug molecule to market within a year rather than the traditional fifteen years for each phase of drug clinical trials. This review provides insight in respect to first generation COVID-19 vaccines, which were in clinical use as of December 2020 and focused on the Pfizer/ BioNTech/Fosun, Moderna mRNA-1273, Johnson and Johnson and AstraZeneca/Oxford AZD1222 vaccines.

Keywords: Coronavirus, Vaccines, AstraZeneca, Moderna (mRNA-1273), Pfizer, Johnson and Johnson, Gamaleya, Sinopharm, Viral Vector, Sputnik

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MWEETWA, Larry L et al. Development of first Generation COVID-19 Vaccines: State-of the-Art Technologies and future Implications!. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 9, sep. 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 may 2024. doi:
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