The Management of Covid-19 Infection in Pregnancy and Puerperium: From the World View to the Italian Reality
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome and is an emerging disease. Considering the changes in maternal physiological and immune function during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at increased risk of being infected with Covid-19 and developing more complicated clinical events. Vertical transmission of the Covid-19 virus is possible although to this day it is still considered a rare event. It is conceivable that most pregnant patients infected with the Covid-19 virus have mild or moderate flu symptoms. More serious symptoms, such as pneumonia, in fact, seem to be more common in the elderly population or in subjects suffering from chronic diseases. As a precaution, pregnant women are considered the most vulnerable and therefore isolation and limitation of contact are recommended. At the moment there are no data to indicate whether spontaneous delivery is preferable in case of coronavirus infection (suspected or confirmed) to a cesarean section. However, in case of breathing difficulties that require delivery as soon as possible, a cesarean section is recommended. There is no evidence that the virus can be transmitted through breast milk. Furthermore, breastfeeding is preferable and has numerous benefits for the newborn's immune system. Since pregnant people appear to have a high risk of becoming seriously ill if they have an infection, vaccination is particularly important. In addition, there is evidence that vaccinated people have a lower risk of baby problems, such as stillbirth.
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