Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Diagnosis and Pharmaceutical Management IBD medical interventions

Main Article Content

Amosy Ephreim M'Koma, M.D., M.S., Ph.D., AGA., ASCRS.ASI

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease has an enormous impact on public health, medical systems, economies, and social conditions. Biologic therapy has ameliorated the treatment and clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The efficacy and safety profiles of currently available therapies are still less that optimal in numerous ways, highlighting the requirement for new therapeutic targets. A bunch of new drug studies are underway in inflammatory bowel disease with promising results. This is an outlined guideline of clinical diagnosis and pharmaceutical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Outline delineates the overall recommendations on the modern principles of desirable practice to bolster the adoption of best implementations and exploration as well as inflammatory bowel disease patient, gastroenterologist, and other healthcare provider education. Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, the two unsolved medical inflammatory bowel disease-subtypes condition with no drug for cure. The signs and symptoms on first presentation relate to the anatomical localization and severity of the disease and less with the resulting diagnosis that can clinically and histologically be non-definitive to interpret and establish criteria, specifically in colonic inflammatory bowel disease when the establishment is inconclusive is classified as indeterminate colitis. Conservative pharmaceuticals and accessible avenues do not depend on the disease phenotype. The first line management is to manage symptoms and stabilize active disease; at the same time maintenance therapy is indicated. Nutrition and diet do not play a primary therapeutic role but is warranted as supportive care. There is need of special guideline that explore solution of groundwork gap in terms of access limitations to inflammatory bowel disease care, particularly in developing countries and the irregular representation of socioeconomic stratification with a strategic plan, for the unanswered questions and perspective for the future, especially during the surfaced global COVID-19 pandemic caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV2 impacting on both the patient’s psychological functioning and endoscopy services.  Establishment of a global registry system and accumulated experiences have led to consensus for inflammatory bowel disease management under the COVID-19 pandemic. Painstakingly, the pandemic has influenced medical care systems for these patients. I briefly herein viewpoint summarize among other updates the telemedicine roles during the pandemic and how operationally inflammatory bowel disease centers managed patients and ensured quality of care. In conclusion: inflammatory bowel disease has become a global emergent disease. Serious medical errors are public health problem observed in developing nations i.e., to distinguish inflammatory bowel disease and infectious and parasitic


diseases. Refractory inflammatory bowel disease is a still significant challenge in the management of patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. There are gaps in knowledge and future research directions on the recent newly registered pharmaceuticals. The main clinical outcomes for inflammatory bowel disease were maintained during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Crohn’s colitis, Indeterminate colitis, Clinical diagnosis guideline, Molecular diagnostics, Medical Treatment guidelines, uneven representation of socioeconomic strata, inflammatory bowel disease care during COVID-19 Pandemic

Article Details

How to Cite
M'KOMA, Amosy Ephreim. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Diagnosis and Pharmaceutical Management. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 1, jan. 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/3135>. Date accessed: 13 july 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v11i1.3135.
Section
Research Articles

References

1. M'Koma A, E., The Multifactorial Etiopathogeneses Interplay of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview. Gastrointest Disord 2018, 1 (1), 75-105.
2. Conrad, K.; Roggenbuck, D.; Laass, M. W., Diagnosis and classification of ulcerative colitis. Autoimmun Rev 2014, 13 (4-5), 463-6.
3. Nosti, P. A.; Stahl, T. J.; Sokol, A. I., Surgical repair of rectovaginal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 2013.
4. Nielsen, O. H.; Rogler, G.; Hahnloser, D.; Thomsen, O. O., Diagnosis and management of fistulizing Crohn's disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009, 6 (2), 92-106.
5. Kaplan, G. G., The global burden of IBD: from 2015 to 2025. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015, 12 (12), 720-7.
6. Windsor, J. W.; Kaplan, G. G., Evolving Epidemiology of IBD. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2019, 21 (8), 40.
7. Kaplan, G. G.; Windsor, J. W., The four epidemiological stages in the global evolution of inflammatory bowel disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021, 18 (1), 56-66.
8. Matsuoka, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueno, F.; Matsui, T.; Hirai, F.; Inoue, N.; Kato, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Koganei, K.; Kunisaki, R.; Motoya, S.; Nagahori, M.; Nakase, H.; Omata, F.; Saruta, M.; Watanabe, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kanai, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Takahashi, K. I.; Watanabe, K.; Hibi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Sugano, K.; Shimosegawa, T., Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol 2018, 53 (3), 305-353.
9. Kapasi, R.; Glatter, J.; Lamb, C. A.; Acheson, A. G.; Andrews, C.; Arnott, I. D.; Barrett, K. J.; Bell, G.; Bhatnagar, G.; Bloom, S.; Brookes, M. J.; Brown, S. R.; Burch, N.; Burman, A.; Crook, K.; Cummings, J. F.; Davies, J.; Demick, A.; Epstein, J.; Faiz, O.; Feakins, R.; Fletcher, M.; Garrick, V.; Jaffray, B.; Johnson, M.; Keetarut, K.; Limdi, J.; Meade, U.; Muhammed, R.; Murdock, A.; Posford, N.; Rowse, G.; Shaw, I.; St Clair Jones, A.; Taylor, S.; Weaver, S.; Younge, L.; Hawthorne, A. B., Consensus standards of healthcare for adults and children with inflammatory bowel disease in the UK. Frontline Gastroenterol 2020, 11 (3), 178-187.
10. Amiot, A.; Bouguen, G.; Bonnaud, G.; Bouhnik, Y.; Hagege, H.; Peyrin-Biroulet, L.; French National Consensus Clinical guidelines for the management of, I. B. D. s. g., Clinical guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease: Update of a French national consensus. Dig Liver Dis 2021, 53 (1), 35-43.
11. Rubin, D. T.; Feuerstein, J. D.; Wang, A. Y.; Cohen, R. D., AGA Clinical Practice Update on Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Expert Commentary. Gastroenterology 2020, 159 (1), 350-357.
12. M'Koma, A. E.; Wise, P. E.; Muldoon, R. L.; Schwartz, D. A.; Washington, M. K.; Herline, A. J., Evolution of the restorative proctocolectomy and its effects on gastrointestinal hormones. Int J Colorectal Dis 2007, 22 (10), 1143-63.
13. Shen, B.; Kochhar, G.; Navaneethan, U.; Farraye, F. A.; Schwartz, D. A.; Iacucci, M.; Bernstein, C. N.; Dryden, G.; Cross, R.; Bruining, D. H.; Kobayashi, T.; Lukas, M.; Shergill, A.; Bortlik, M.; Lan, N.; Lukas, M.; Tang, S. J.; Kotze, P. G.; Kiran, R. P.; Dulai, P. S.; El-Hachem, S.; Coelho-Prabhu, N.; Thakkar, S.; Mao, R.; Chen, G.; Zhang, S.; Suarez, B. G.; Lama, Y. G.; Silverberg, M. S.; Sandborn, W. J., Practical guidelines on endoscopic treatment for Crohn's disease strictures: a consensus statement from the Global Interventional Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020, 5 (4), 393-405.
14. Rahimi, R.; Nikfar, S.; Rezaie, A.; Abdollahi, M., A meta-analysis of antibiotic therapy for active ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci 2007, 52 (11), 2920-5.
15. Heller, F.; Fuss, I. J.; Nieuwenhuis, E. E.; Blumberg, R. S.; Strober, W., Oxazolone colitis, a Th2 colitis model resembling ulcerative colitis, is mediated by IL-13-producing NK-T cells. Immunity 2002, 17 (5), 629-38.
16. Esmaily, H.; Sanei, Y.; Abdollahi, M., Autoantibodies and an immune-based rat model of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 2013, 19 (43), 7569-76.
17. Strober, W.; Fuss, I. J.; Blumberg, R. S., The immunology of mucosal models of inflammation. Annu Rev Immunol 2002, 20, 495-549.
18. Weber, M. S.; Steinman, L.; Zamvil, S. S., Statins--treatment option for central nervous system autoimmune disease? Neurotherapeutics 2007, 4 (4), 693-700.
19. Steward-Tharp, S. M.; Song, Y. J.; Siegel, R. M.; O'Shea, J. J., New insights into T cell biology and T cell-directed therapy for autoimmunity, inflammation, and immunosuppression. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010, 1183, 123-48.
20. Ludwig, R. J.; Vanhoorelbeke, K.; Leypoldt, F.; Kaya, Z.; Bieber, K.; McLachlan, S. M.; Komorowski, L.; Luo, J.; Cabral-Marques, O.; Hammers, C. M.; Lindstrom, J. M.; Lamprecht, P.; Fischer, A.; Riemekasten, G.; Tersteeg, C.; Sondermann, P.; Rapoport, B.; Wandinger, K. P.; Probst, C.; El Beidaq, A.; Schmidt, E.; Verkman, A.; Manz, R. A.; Nimmerjahn, F., Mechanisms of Autoantibody-Induced Pathology. Front Immunol 2017, 8, 603.
21. Longobardi, T.; Jacobs, P.; Bernstein, C. N., Utilization of health care resources by individuals with inflammatory bowel disease in the United States: a profile of time since diagnosis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004, 99 (4), 650-5.
22. McGlynn, E. A.; Asch, S. M.; Adams, J.; Keesey, J.; Hicks, J.; DeCristofaro, A.; Kerr, E. A., The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. N Engl J Med 2003, 348 (26), 2635-45.
23. Kappelman, M. D.; Dorn, S. D.; Peterson, E.; Runge, T.; Allen, J. I., Quality of care for gastrointestinal conditions: a primer for gastroenterologists. Am J Gastroenterol 2011, 106 (7), 1182-7.
24. Crandall, W. V.; Margolis, P. A.; Kappelman, M. D.; King, E. C.; Pratt, J. M.; Boyle, B. M.; Duffy, L. F.; Grunow, J. E.; Kim, S. C.; Leibowitz, I.; Schoen, B. T.; Colletti, R. B.; ImproveCareNow, C., Improved outcomes in a quality improvement collaborative for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Pediatrics 2012, 129 (4), e1030-41.
25. Rogler, G.; Bernstein, C. N.; Sood, A.; Goh, K. L.; Yamamoto-Furusho, J. K.; Abbas, Z.; Fried, M., Role of biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease in developing countries. Gut 2012, 61 (5), 706-12.
26. Herman AM, H. A., James SD, Ballard BR, M'Koma AE, Inflammatory Bowel Disease On-Line Web-Based Guide to Health Professionals and Patients in Developing and African Nations. Japanise Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2020, 3 (2), 1-11.
27. Organization, W. H., Threshold values for intervention cost-effectiveness by Region. 2008.
28. Organization, W. H., Cost effectiveness and strategic planning (WHO-CHOICE) 2021.
29. M'Koma A, E., Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Expanding Global Health Problem. Clinical Medicine Insights Gastroenterology 2013, (6), 33-47.
30. Herman AM, H.A., James SD, Ballard BR, M'Koma AE, Inflammatory Bowel Disease On-Line Web-Based Guide to Health Professionals and Patients in Developing and African Nations. Japanise Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2020. 3(2): p. 1-11.
31. Stroup, D. F.; Berlin, J. A.; Morton, S. C.; Olkin, I.; Williamson, G. D.; Rennie, D.; Moher, D.; Becker, B. J.; Sipe, T. A.; Thacker, S. B., Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. Jama 2000, 283 (15), 2008-12.
32. Greenland, S., Quantitative methods in the review of epidemiologic literature. Epidemiol Rev 1987, 9, 1-30.
33. Loginov, A. S.; Parfenov, A. I.; Sivash, E. S.; Tsvetkov, V. F.; Zinov'ev, O. I., [Crohn's disease. The problem of early diagnosis]. Ter Arkh 1992, 64 (4), 82-5.
34. Griffiths, A. M., Challenging question: can we diagnose Crohn's disease without histology? Dig Dis 2013, 31 (2), 202-6.
35. Van Assche, G.; Dignass, A.; Bokemeyer, B.; Danese, S.; Gionchetti, P.; Moser, G.; Beaugerie, L.; Gomollon, F.; Hauser, W.; Herrlinger, K.; Oldenburg, B.; Panes, J.; Portela, F.; Rogler, G.; Stein, J.; Tilg, H.; Travis, S.; Lindsay, J. O.; European, C. s.; Colitis, O., Second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis part 3: special situations. J Crohns Colitis 2013, 7 (1), 1-33.
36. M'Koma, A. E., Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease: Potential role of molecular biometrics. World journal of gastrointestinal surgery 2014, 6 (11), 208-219.
37. Burakoff, R., Indeterminate colitis: clinical spectrum of disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004, 38 (5 Suppl 1), S41-3.
38. Tremaine, W. J., Is indeterminate colitis determinable? Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2012, 14 (2), 162-5.
39. James SD, H. A., Um JW, Ballard BR, Smoot DT, M'Koma AE, The MYTHS of de novo Crohn's Disease After Restorative Proctocolectomy with Ileal Pouch-anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis. Japenese Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2020, 3 (2), 1-10.
40. Jarchin, L.; Spencer, E. A.; Khaitov, S.; Greenstein, A.; Jossen, J.; Lai, J.; Dunkin, D.; Pittman, N.; Benkov, K.; Dubinsky, M. C., De Novo Crohn's Disease of the Pouch in Children Undergoing Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2019, 69 (4), 455-460.
41. James, S. D.; Hawkins, A. T.; M'Koma, A. E., Adenocarcinoma at the Ileostomy Site After a Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis and/or Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: An Overview. Ostomy/wound management 2018, 64 (6), 30-40.
42. Brown, C. J.; Maclean, A. R.; Cohen, Z.; Macrae, H. M.; O'Connor, B. I.; McLeod, R. S., Crohn's disease and indeterminate colitis and the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: outcomes and patterns of failure. Dis Colon Rectum 2005, 48 (8), 1542-9.
43. Burisch, J.; Munkholm, P., Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2013, 29 (4), 357-62.
44. Molodecky, N. A.; Soon, I. S.; Rabi, D. M.; Ghali, W. A.; Ferris, M.; Chernoff, G.; Benchimol, E. I.; Panaccione, R.; Ghosh, S.; Barkema, H. W.; Kaplan, G. G., Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. Gastroenterology 2012, 142 (1), 46-54 e42.
45. Lopez, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Sandborn, W. J., Recent advances in the management of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease: lessons for the clinic. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019, 13 (6), 563-577.
46. Gajendran, M.; Loganathan, P.; Catinella, A. P.; Hashash, J. G., A comprehensive review and update on Crohn's disease. Dis Mon 2018, 64 (2), 20-57.
47. Gajendran, M.; Bauer, A. J.; Buchholz, B. M.; Watson, A. R.; Koutroubakis, I. E.; Hashash, J. G.; Ramos-Rivers, C.; Shah, N.; Lee, K. K.; Cruz, R. J.; Regueiro, M.; Zuckerbraun, B.; Schwartz, M.; Swoger, J.; Barrie, A.; Harrison, J.; Hartman, D. J.; Salgado, J.; Rivers, W. M.; Click, B.; Anderson, A. M.; Umapathy, C.; Babichenko, D.; Dunn, M. A.; Binion, D. G., Ileocecal Anastomosis Type Significantly Influences Long-Term Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Healthcare Utilization in Postoperative Crohn's Disease Patients Independent of Inflammation Recurrence. Am J Gastroenterol 2018, 113 (4), 576-583.
48. Fumery, M.; Singh, S.; Dulai, P. S.; Gower-Rousseau, C.; Peyrin-Biroulet, L.; Sandborn, W. J., Natural History of Adult Ulcerative Colitis in Population-based Cohorts: A Systematic Review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018, 16 (3), 343-356 e3.
49. Narula, N.; Kim, B. J.; Davis, C. H.; Dewhurst, W. L.; Samp, L. A.; Aloia, T. A., A proactive outreach intervention that decreases readmission after hepatectomy. Surgery 2018, 163 (4), 703-708.
50. Theodossi, A.; Spiegelhalter, D. J.; Jass, J.; Firth, J.; Dixon, M.; Leader, M.; Levison, D. A.; Lindley, R.; Filipe, I.; Price, A.; et al., Observer variation and discriminatory value of biopsy features in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1994, 35 (7), 961-8.
51. Seldenrijk, C. A.; Morson, B. C.; Meuwissen, S. G.; Schipper, N. W.; Lindeman, J.; Meijer, C. J., Histopathological evaluation of colonic mucosal biopsy specimens in chronic inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic implications. Gut 1991, 32 (12), 1514-20.
52. Rizzardi, A. E.; Johnson, A. T.; Vogel, R. I.; Pambuccian, S. E.; Henriksen, J.; Skubitz, A. P.; Metzger, G. J.; Schmechel, S. C., Quantitative comparison of immunohistochemical staining measured by digital image analysis versus pathologist visual scoring. Diagnostic pathology 2012, 7, 42.
53. Gavrielides, M. A.; Gallas, B. D.; Lenz, P.; Badano, A.; Hewitt, S. M., Observer variability in the interpretation of HER2/neu immunohistochemical expression with unaided and computer-aided digital microscopy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2011, 135 (2), 233-42.
54. Sayed, I. M.; Suarez, K.; Lim, E.; Singh, S.; Pereira, M.; Ibeawuchi, S. R.; Katkar, G.; Dunkel, Y.; Mittal, Y.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Guma, M.; Boland, B. S.; Dulai, P. S.; Sandborn, W. J.; Ghosh, P.; Das, S., Host engulfment pathway controls inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. FEBS J 2020, 287 (18), 3967-3988.
55. Mosli, M.; Sabbahi, H.; Alyousef, H.; Abdulhaq, M.; Hadadi, A.; Aljahdali, E.; Jawa, H.; Bazarah, S.; Qari, Y., Risk Stratification of Patients with Crohn's Disease: A Retrospective Analysis of Clinical Decision Making and Its Impact on Long-Term Outcome. Dig Dis 2018, 36 (1), 49-55.
56. Staradub, V. L.; Messenger, K. A.; Hao, N.; Wiley, E. L.; Morrow, M., Changes in breast cancer therapy because of pathology second opinions. Ann Surg Oncol 2002, 9 (10), 982-7.
57. Dassopoulos, T.; Cohen, R. D.; Scherl, E. J.; Schwartz, R. M.; Kosinski, L.; Regueiro, M. D., Ulcerative Colitis Care Pathway. Gastroenterology 2015, 149 (1), 238-45.
58. Truelove, S. C.; Horler, A. R.; Richards, W. C., Serial biopsy in ulcerative colitis. Br Med J 1955, 2 (4956), 1590-3.
59. Mitchell, P. J.; Rabau, M. Y.; Haboubi, N. Y., Indeterminate colitis. Tech Coloproctol 2007, 11 (2), 91-6.
60. Adamina, M.; Bonovas, S.; Raine, T.; Spinelli, A.; Warusavitarne, J.; Armuzzi, A.; Bachmann, O.; Bager, P.; Biancone, L.; Bokemeyer, B.; Bossuyt, P.; Burisch, J.; Collins, P.; Doherty, G.; El-Hussuna, A.; Ellul, P.; Fiorino, G.; Frei-Lanter, C.; Furfaro, F.; Gingert, C.; Gionchetti, P.; Gisbert, J. P.; Gomollon, F.; Gonzalez Lorenzo, M.; Gordon, H.; Hlavaty, T.; Juillerat, P.; Katsanos, K.; Kopylov, U.; Krustins, E.; Kucharzik, T.; Lytras, T.; Maaser, C.; Magro, F.; Marshall, J. K.; Myrelid, P.; Pellino, G.; Rosa, I.; Sabino, J.; Savarino, E.; Stassen, L.; Torres, J.; Uzzan, M.; Vavricka, S.; Verstockt, B.; Zmora, O., ECCO Guidelines on Therapeutics in Crohn's Disease: Surgical Treatment. J Crohns Colitis 2020, 14 (2), 155-168.
61. Chang, S.; Hudesman, D., First-Line Biologics or Small Molecules in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a Practical Guide for the Clinician. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2020, 22 (2), 7.
62. Bischoff, S. C.; Escher, J.; Hebuterne, X.; Klek, S.; Krznaric, Z.; Schneider, S.; Shamir, R.; Stardelova, K.; Wierdsma, N.; Wiskin, A. E.; Forbes, A., ESPEN practical guideline: Clinical Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Nutr 2020, 39 (3), 632-653.
63. Lega, S.; Pin, A.; Arrigo, S.; Cifaldi, C.; Girardelli, M.; Bianco, A. M.; Malamisura, M.; Angelino, G.; Faraci, S.; Rea, F.; Romeo, E. F.; Aloi, M.; Romano, C.; Barabino, A.; Martelossi, S.; Tommasini, A.; Di Matteo, G.; Cancrini, C.; De Angelis, P.; Finocchi, A.; Bramuzzo, M., Diagnostic Approach to Monogenic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Clinical Practice: A Ten-Year Multicentric Experience. Inflammatory bowel diseases 2020, 26 (5), 720-727.
64. M'Koma, A., Wise PE, Seeley EH, Washington MK, Schwartz DA, Muldoon RL, Herline AJ, Caprioli RM, Human Alpha Defensins are Differentially Expressed Between the Inflammatory Colitides. Gastroenterology 2010, 138 (5, Suppl 1), S-525.
65. Seeley, E. H.; Washington, M. K.; Caprioli, R. M.; M'Koma, A. E., Proteomic patterns of colonic mucosal tissues delineate Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis. Proteomics Clin Appl 2013, 7 (7-8), 541-9.
66. Williams, A. D.; Korolkova, O. Y.; Sakwe, A. M.; Geiger, T. M.; James, S. D.; Muldoon, R. L.; Herline, A. J.; Goodwin, J. S.; Izban, M. G.; Washington, M. K.; Smoot, D. T.; Ballard, B. R.; Gazouli, M.; M'Koma, A. E., Human alpha defensin 5 is a candidate biomarker to delineate inflammatory bowel disease. PloS one 2017, 12 (8), e0179710.
67. Williams AD, S. A., Smoot DT, Washington MK, Ballard BR, Geiger TM, M'Koma AE., Indeterminate Colitis Precision into Crohn's Colitis and Ulcerative Colitis Using Molecular Biometrics. In Annual Scientific Meeting, The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, www.fascrs.org, Ed. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons: Los Angeles Convention Center, 2016; p 30.
68. Rana T, K. O., Rachakonda G, Williams AD, Hawkins AT, James SD, Sakwe AM, Hui N, Wang L, Yu C, Goodwin JS, Izban MG, Offodile RS, Washington MK, Ballard BR, Smoot DT, Shi XZ, Forbes, Shanker A, M'Koma AE, Linking bacterial enterotoxins and alpha Defensin 5 expansion in the Crohn’s colitis: A new insight into the etiopathogenetic and differentiation triggers driving colonic inflammatory bowel disease. PloS one 2021, In Press.
69. Podolsky, D. K., Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 2002, 347 (6), 417-29.
70. Hyams, J. S.; Davis, P.; Grancher, K.; Lerer, T.; Justinich, C. J.; Markowitz, J., Clinical outcome of ulcerative colitis in children. J Pediatr 1996, 129 (1), 81-8.
71. Lamb, C. A.; Kennedy, N. A.; Raine, T.; Hendy, P. A.; Smith, P. J.; Limdi, J. K.; Hayee, B.; Lomer, M. C. E.; Parkes, G. C.; Selinger, C.; Barrett, K. J.; Davies, R. J.; Bennett, C.; Gittens, S.; Dunlop, M. G.; Faiz, O.; Fraser, A.; Garrick, V.; Johnston, P. D.; Parkes, M.; Sanderson, J.; Terry, H.; group, I. B. D. g. e. c.; Gaya, D. R.; Iqbal, T. H.; Taylor, S. A.; Smith, M.; Brookes, M.; Hansen, R.; Hawthorne, A. B., British Society of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut 2019, 68 (Suppl 3), s1-s106.
72. Panaccione, R.; Steinhart, A. H.; Bressler, B.; Khanna, R.; Marshall, J. K.; Targownik, L.; Afif, W.; Bitton, A.; Borgaonkar, M.; Chauhan, U.; Halloran, B.; Jones, J.; Kennedy, E.; Leontiadis, G. I.; Loftus, E. V., Jr.; Meddings, J.; Moayyedi, P.; Murthy, S.; Plamondon, S.; Rosenfeld, G.; Schwartz, D.; Seow, C. H.; Williams, C.; Bernstein, C. N., Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Luminal Crohn's Disease. J Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2019, 2 (3), e1-e34.
73. Mack, D. R.; Benchimol, E. I.; Critch, J.; deBruyn, J.; Tse, F.; Moayyedi, P.; Church, P.; Deslandres, C.; El-Matary, W.; Huynh, H.; Jantchou, P.; Lawrence, S.; Otley, A.; Sherlock, M.; Walters, T.; Kappelman, M. D.; Sadowski, D.; Marshall, J. K.; Griffiths, A., Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Clinical Practice Guideline for the Medical Management of Pediatric Luminal Crohn's Disease. J Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2019, 2 (3), e35-e63.
74. Turner, D.; Ruemmele, F. M.; Orlanski-Meyer, E.; Griffiths, A. M.; de Carpi, J. M.; Bronsky, J.; Veres, G.; Aloi, M.; Strisciuglio, C.; Braegger, C. P.; Assa, A.; Romano, C.; Hussey, S.; Stanton, M.; Pakarinen, M.; de Ridder, L.; Katsanos, K.; Croft, N.; Navas-Lopez, V.; Wilson, D. C.; Lawrence, S.; Russell, R. K., Management of Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis, Part 1: Ambulatory Care-An Evidence-based Guideline From European Crohn's and Colitis Organization and European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018, 67 (2), 257-291.
75. Rubin, D. T.; Ananthakrishnan, A. N.; Siegel, C. A.; Sauer, B. G.; Long, M. D., ACG Clinical Guideline: Ulcerative Colitis in Adults. Am J Gastroenterol 2019, 114 (3), 384-413.
76. Turner, D.; Ruemmele, F. M.; Orlanski-Meyer, E.; Griffiths, A. M.; de Carpi, J. M.; Bronsky, J.; Veres, G.; Aloi, M.; Strisciuglio, C.; Braegger, C. P.; Assa, A.; Romano, C.; Hussey, S.; Stanton, M.; Pakarinen, M.; de Ridder, L.; Katsanos, K. H.; Croft, N.; Navas-Lopez, V. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Lawrence, S.; Russell, R. K., Management of Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis, Part 2: Acute Severe Colitis-An Evidence-based Consensus Guideline From the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization and the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018, 67 (2), 292-310.
77. Feuerstein, J. D.; Isaacs, K. L.; Schneider, Y.; Siddique, S. M.; Falck-Ytter, Y.; Singh, S.; Committee, A. G. A. I. C. G., AGA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology 2020, 158 (5), 1450-1461.
78. Pellino, G.; Keller, D. S.; Sampietro, G. M.; Annese, V.; Carvello, M.; Celentano, V.; Coco, C.; Colombo, F.; Cracco, N.; Di Candido, F.; Franceschi, M.; Laureti, S.; Mattioli, G.; Pio, L.; Sciaudone, G.; Sica, G.; Villanacci, V.; Zinicola, R.; Leone, S.; Danese, S.; Spinelli, A.; Delaini, G.; Selvaggi, F.; the Italian Society of Colorectal, S., Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) position statement of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR): general principles of IBD management. Tech Coloproctol 2020, 24 (2), 105-126.
79. Kaur, M.; Dalal, R. L.; Shaffer, S.; Schwartz, D. A.; Rubin, D. T., Inpatient Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Related Complications. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020, 18 (6), 1346-1355.
80. Amiot, A.; Bouguen, G.; Bonnaud, G.; Bouhnik, Y.; Hagege, H.; Peyrin-Biroulet, L.; French National Consensus Clinical guidelines for the management of, I. B. D. s. g., Clinical guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease: Update of a French national consensus. Dig Liver Dis 2020.
81. Singh, S.; Allegretti, J. R.; Siddique, S. M.; Terdiman, J. P., AGA Technical Review on the Management of Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology 2020, 158 (5), 1465-1496 e17.
82. Dignass, A.; Van Assche, G.; Lindsay, J. O.; Lemann, M.; Soderholm, J.; Colombel, J. F.; Danese, S.; D'Hoore, A.; Gassull, M.; Gomollon, F.; Hommes, D. W.; Michetti, P.; O'Morain, C.; Oresland, T.; Windsor, A.; Stange, E. F.; Travis, S. P.; European, C. s.; Colitis, O., The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Current management. J Crohns Colitis 2010, 4 (1), 28-62.
83. Dignass, A.; Lindsay, J. O.; Sturm, A.; Windsor, A.; Colombel, J. F.; Allez, M.; D'Haens, G.; D'Hoore, A.; Mantzaris, G.; Novacek, G.; Oresland, T.; Reinisch, W.; Sans, M.; Stange, E.; Vermeire, S.; Travis, S.; Van Assche, G., Second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis part 2: current management. J Crohns Colitis 2012, 6 (10), 991-1030.
84. Bodger, K., Cost effectiveness of treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Pharmacoeconomics 2011, 29 (5), 387-401.
85. Hanauer, S. B., Top-down versus step-up approaches to chronic inflammatory bowel disease: presumed innocent or presumed guilty. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005, 2 (11), 493.
86. Spekhorst, L. M.; Visschedijk, M. C.; Alberts, R.; Festen, E. A.; van der Wouden, E. J.; Dijkstra, G.; Weersma, R. K.; Dutch Initiative on, C.; Colitis, Performance of the Montreal classification for inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol 2014, 20 (41), 15374-81.
87. Salaritabar, A.; Darvishi, B.; Hadjiakhoondi, F.; Manayi, A.; Sureda, A.; Nabavi, S. F.; Fitzpatrick, L. R.; Nabavi, S. M.; Bishayee, A., Therapeutic potential of flavonoids in inflammatory bowel disease: A comprehensive review. World J Gastroenterol 2017, 23 (28), 5097-5114.
88. Castellanos, J. G.; Longman, R. S., Innate lymphoid cells link gut microbes with mucosal T cell immunity. Gut Microbes 2020, 11 (2), 231-236.
89. Ni, J.; Wu, G. D.; Albenberg, L.; Tomov, V. T., Gut microbiota and IBD: causation or correlation? Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017, 14 (10), 573-584.
90. Stange, E. F.; Schroeder, B. O., Microbiota and mucosal defense in IBD: an update. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019, 13 (10), 963-976.
91. Uhlig, H. H.; Powrie, F., Translating Immunology into Therapeutic Concepts for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Annu Rev Immunol 2018, 36, 755-781.
92. Jeong, D. Y.; Kim, S.; Son, M. J.; Son, C. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Kronbichler, A.; Lee, K. H.; Shin, J. I., Induction and maintenance treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: A comprehensive review. Autoimmun Rev 2019, 18 (5), 439-454.
93. Ghosh, S.; Mitchell, R., Impact of inflammatory bowel disease on quality of life: Results of the European Federation of Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Associations (EFCCA) patient survey. J Crohns Colitis 2007, 1 (1), 10-20.
94. Fukuda, T.; Naganuma, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Nanki, K.; Mizuno, S.; Mutaguchi, M.; Nakazato, Y.; Inoue, N.; Ogata, H.; Iwao, Y.; Kanai, T., The risk factor of clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with low dose 5-aminosalicylic acid as maintenance therapy: A report from the IBD registry. PloS one 2017, 12 (11), e0187737.
95. Salas, A.; Hernandez-Rocha, C.; Duijvestein, M.; Faubion, W.; McGovern, D.; Vermeire, S.; Vetrano, S.; Vande Casteele, N., JAK-STAT pathway targeting for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020, 17 (6), 323-337.
96. Coskun, M.; Salem, M.; Pedersen, J.; Nielsen, O. H., Involvement of JAK/STAT signaling in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Pharmacol Res 2013, 76, 1-8.
97. M'Koma AE, M. H., Adunyah SE, Inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer: proctocolectomy andmucosectomy does not necessarily eliminate pouch related cancer incidences. Int J colorect Dis 2011, 26, 533-552.
98. Orlanski-Meyer, E.; Topf-Olivestone, C.; Ledder, O.; Dotan, I.; Folmer-Hansen, L.; Kindermann, A.; Assa, A.; Kolho, K. L.; Kolacek, S.; Carroll, M. W.; Strisciuglio, C.; Aloi, M.; Hansen, R.; Navon, D.; Winter, H. S.; Navas-Lopez, V. M.; de Ridder, L.; Smets, F.; Weiss, B.; Turner, D., Outcomes Following Pouch Formation in Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis: A Study From the Porto Group of ESPGHAN. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020, 71 (3), 346-353.
99. Bosani, M.; Ardizzone, S.; Porro, G. B., Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Biologics : targets & therapy 2009, 3, 77-97.
100. Florholmen, J. R.; Johnsen, K. M.; Meyer, R.; Olsen, T.; Moe, O. K.; Tandberg, P.; Gundersen, M. D.; Kvamme, J. M.; Johnsen, K.; Loitegard, T.; Raschpichler, G.; Vold, C.; Sorbye, S. W.; Goll, R., Discovery and validation of mucosal TNF expression combined with histological score - a biomarker for personalized treatment in ulcerative colitis. BMC Gastroenterol 2020, 20 (1), 321.
101. Ko, C. W.; Singh, S.; Feuerstein, J. D.; Falck-Ytter, C.; Falck-Ytter, Y.; Cross, R. K.; American Gastroenterological Association Institute Clinical Guidelines, C., AGA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology 2019, 156 (3), 748-764.
102. Feuerstein, J. D.; Nguyen, G. C.; Kupfer, S. S.; Falck-Ytter, Y.; Singh, S.; American Gastroenterological Association Institute Clinical Guidelines, C., American Gastroenterological Association Institute Guideline on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology 2017, 153 (3), 827-834.
103. Danese, S.; Vuitton, L.; Peyrin-Biroulet, L., Biologic agents for IBD: practical insights. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015, 12 (9), 537-45.
104. Morrow, T.; Felcone, L. H., Defining the difference: What Makes Biologics Unique. Biotechnol Healthc 2004, 1 (4), 24-9.
105. Kuek, A.; Hazleman, B. L.; Ostor, A. J., Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and biologic therapy: a medical revolution. Postgrad Med J 2007, 83 (978), 251-60.
106. Rossen, N. G.; Fuentes, S.; van der Spek, M. J.; Tijssen, J. G.; Hartman, J. H.; Duflou, A.; Lowenberg, M.; van den Brink, G. R.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.; de Vos, W. M.; Zoetendal, E. G.; D'Haens, G. R.; Ponsioen, C. Y., Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Fecal Transplantation for Patients With Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology 2015, 149 (1), 110-118 e4.
107. Meyer, A.; Rudant, J.; Drouin, J.; Weill, A.; Carbonnel, F.; Coste, J., Effectiveness and Safety of Reference Infliximab and Biosimilar in Crohn Disease: A French Equivalence Study. Ann Intern Med 2019, 170 (2), 99-107.
108. Cholapranee, A.; Hazlewood, G. S.; Kaplan, G. G.; Peyrin-Biroulet, L.; Ananthakrishnan, A. N., Systematic review with meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of biologics for induction and maintenance of mucosal healing in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis controlled trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017, 45 (10), 1291-1302.
109. Krogsgaard, L. R.; Lyngesen, M.; Bytzer, P., Systematic review: quality of trials on the symptomatic effects of the low FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017, 45 (12), 1506-1513.
110. Torres, J.; Bonovas, S.; Doherty, G.; Kucharzik, T.; Gisbert, J. P.; Raine, T.; Adamina, M.; Armuzzi, A.; Bachmann, O.; Bager, P.; Biancone, L.; Bokemeyer, B.; Bossuyt, P.; Burisch, J.; Collins, P.; El-Hussuna, A.; Ellul, P.; Frei-Lanter, C.; Furfaro, F.; Gingert, C.; Gionchetti, P.; Gomollon, F.; Gonzalez-Lorenzo, M.; Gordon, H.; Hlavaty, T.; Juillerat, P.; Katsanos, K.; Kopylov, U.; Krustins, E.; Lytras, T.; Maaser, C.; Magro, F.; Marshall, J. K.; Myrelid, P.; Pellino, G.; Rosa, I.; Sabino, J.; Savarino, E.; Spinelli, A.; Stassen, L.; Uzzan, M.; Vavricka, S.; Verstockt, B.; Warusavitarne, J.; Zmora, O.; Fiorino, G., ECCO Guidelines on Therapeutics in Crohn's Disease: Medical Treatment. J Crohns Colitis 2020, 14 (1), 4-22.
111. Lukas, M.; Malickova, K.; Kolar, M.; Bortlik, M.; Vasatko, M.; Machkova, N.; Hruba, V.; Duricova, D.; Lukas, M., Switching From Originator Adalimumab to the Biosimilar SB5 in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Short-term Experience From a Single Tertiary Clinical Centre. J Crohns Colitis 2020, 14 (7), 915-919.
112. Rubinstein, E., Letter--A Challenge to the Pharmacy Profession to Raise Its Voice on Health Care Reform. J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2017, 23 (12), 1277.
113. Rubinstein, E., Letter--Draft FDA Guidance "Considerations in Demonstrating Interchangeability with a Reference Product": Overview and Presentation-Related Concerns. J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2017, 23 (3), 266.
114. Alten, R., [Biosimilars in rheumatology. Development and results of clinical trials]. Z Rheumatol 2015, 74 (8), 682-8.
115. Alten, R.; Cronstein, B. N., Clinical trial development for biosimilars. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2015, 44 (6 Suppl), S2-8.
116. Avila-Ribeiro, P.; Fiorino, G.; Danese, S., The Experience with Biosimilars of Infliximab in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Curr Pharm Des 2017, 23 (44), 6759-6769.
117. Jacobs, I.; Singh, E.; Sewell, K. L.; Al-Sabbagh, A.; Shane, L. G., Patient attitudes and understanding about biosimilars: an international cross-sectional survey. Patient Prefer Adherence 2016, 10, 937-48.
118. Al-Sabbagh, A.; Olech, E.; McClellan, J. E.; Kirchhoff, C. F., Development of biosimilars. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2016, 45 (5 Suppl), S11-8.
119. Lagasse, H. A.; Alexaki, A.; Simhadri, V. L.; Katagiri, N. H.; Jankowski, W.; Sauna, Z. E.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, C., Recent advances in (therapeutic protein) drug development. F1000Res 2017, 6, 113.
120. McCamish, M.; Woollett, G., The rise of the biosimilar. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2012, 5 (6), 597-9.
121. Zheng, M. K.; Shih, D. Q.; Chen, G. C., Insights on the use of biosimilars in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 2017, 23 (11), 1932-1943.
122. Hyams, J. S.; Griffiths, A.; Markowitz, J.; Baldassano, R. N.; Faubion, W. A., Jr.; Colletti, R. B.; Dubinsky, M.; Kierkus, J.; Rosh, J.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Bittle, B.; Marshall, M.; Lazar, A., Safety and efficacy of adalimumab for moderate to severe Crohn's disease in children. Gastroenterology 2012, 143 (2), 365-74 e2.
123. Ruemmele, F. M.; Lachaux, A.; Cezard, J. P.; Morali, A.; Maurage, C.; Ginies, J. L.; Viola, S.; Goulet, O.; Lamireau, T.; Scaillon, M.; Breton, A.; Sarles, J.; Groupe Francophone d'Hepatologie, G. e. N. P., Efficacy of infliximab in pediatric Crohn's disease: a randomized multicenter open-label trial comparing scheduled to on demand maintenance therapy. Inflammatory bowel diseases 2009, 15 (3), 388-94.
124. Hyams, J.; Damaraju, L.; Blank, M.; Johanns, J.; Guzzo, C.; Winter, H. S.; Kugathasan, S.; Cohen, S.; Markowitz, J.; Escher, J. C.; Veereman-Wauters, G.; Crandall, W.; Baldassano, R.; Griffiths, A.; Group, T. S., Induction and maintenance therapy with infliximab for children with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012, 10 (4), 391-9 e1.
125. Hyams, J.; Crandall, W.; Kugathasan, S.; Griffiths, A.; Olson, A.; Johanns, J.; Liu, G.; Travers, S.; Heuschkel, R.; Markowitz, J.; Cohen, S.; Winter, H.; Veereman-Wauters, G.; Ferry, G.; Baldassano, R.; Group, R. S., Induction and maintenance infliximab therapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in children. Gastroenterology 2007, 132 (3), 863-73; quiz 1165-6.
126. Jahnsen, J.; Detlie, T. E.; Vatn, S.; Ricanek, P., Biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: A Norwegian observational study. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015, 9 Suppl 1, 45-52.
127. Bohm, M.; Kario, K.; Kandzari, D. E.; Mahfoud, F.; Weber, M. A.; Schmieder, R. E.; Tsioufis, K.; Pocock, S.; Konstantinidis, D.; Choi, J. W.; East, C.; Lee, D. P.; Ma, A.; Ewen, S.; Cohen, D. L.; Wilensky, R.; Devireddy, C. M.; Lea, J.; Schmid, A.; Weil, J.; Agdirlioglu, T.; Reedus, D.; Jefferson, B. K.; Reyes, D.; D'Souza, R.; Sharp, A. S. P.; Sharif, F.; Fahy, M.; DeBruin, V.; Cohen, S. A.; Brar, S.; Townsend, R. R.; Investigators, S. H.-O. M. P., Efficacy of catheter-based renal denervation in the absence of antihypertensive medications (SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED Pivotal): a multicentre, randomised, sham-controlled trial. Lancet 2020, 395 (10234), 1444-1451.
128. Gecse, K. B.; Lovasz, B. D.; Farkas, K.; Banai, J.; Bene, L.; Gasztonyi, B.; Golovics, P. A.; Kristof, T.; Lakatos, L.; Csontos, A. A.; Juhasz, M.; Nagy, F.; Palatka, K.; Papp, M.; Patai, A.; Lakner, L.; Salamon, A.; Szamosi, T.; Szepes, Z.; Toth, G. T.; Vincze, A.; Szalay, B.; Molnar, T.; Lakatos, P. L., Efficacy and Safety of the Biosimilar Infliximab CT-P13 Treatment in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Prospective, Multicentre, Nationwide Cohort. J Crohns Colitis 2016, 10 (2), 133-40.
129. Sieczkowska, J.; Jarzebicka, D.; Banaszkiewicz, A.; Plocek, A.; Gawronska, A.; Toporowska-Kowalska, E.; Oracz, G.; Meglicka, M.; Kierkus, J., Switching Between Infliximab Originator and Biosimilar in Paediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Preliminary Observations. J Crohns Colitis 2016, 10 (2), 127-32.
130. Smits, L. J.; Derikx, L. A.; de Jong, D. J.; Boshuizen, R. S.; van Esch, A. A.; Drenth, J. P.; Hoentjen, F., Clinical Outcomes Following a Switch from Remicade(R) to the Biosimilar CT-P13 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study. J Crohns Colitis 2016, 10 (11), 1287-1293.
131. M'Koma, A. E.; Lindquist, K.; Liljeqvist, L., Biochemical laboratory data in patients before and after restorative proctocolectomy. A study on 83 patients with a follow-up of 36 months. Ann Chir 1994, 48 (6), 525-34.
132. Kaitha, S.; Bashir, M.; Ali, T., Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol 2015, 6 (3), 62-72.
133. M'Koma, A. E.; Wise, P. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Muldoon, R. L.; Herline, A. J., Prevalence and outcome of anemia after restorative proctocolectomy: a clinical literature review. Dis Colon Rectum 2009, 52 (4), 726-39.
134. M'Koma, A. E., Follow-up results of hematology data before and after restorative proctocolectomy. Clinical outcome. Dis Colon Rectum 1994, 37 (9), 932-7.
135. M'Koma, A. E., Observation on essential biochemical data profile in connection with restorative proctocolectomy in humans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption cited. Dissertation Thesis 2001, 1-126.
136. Marion-Letellier, R.; Savoye, G.; Ghosh, S., IBD: In Food We Trust. J Crohns Colitis 2016, 10 (11), 1351-1361.
137. Cabre, E.; Domenech, E., Impact of environmental and dietary factors on the course of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 2012, 18 (29), 3814-22.
138. Cabre, E.; Manosa, M.; Gassull, M. A., Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory bowel diseases - a systematic review. Br J Nutr 2012, 107 Suppl 2, S240-52.
139. Rizzello, F.; Spisni, E.; Giovanardi, E.; Imbesi, V.; Salice, M.; Alvisi, P.; Valerii, M. C.; Gionchetti, P., Implications of the Westernized Diet in the Onset and Progression of IBD. Nutrients 2019, 11 (5).
140. Reddavide, R.; Rotolo, O.; Caruso, M. G.; Stasi, E.; Notarnicola, M.; Miraglia, C.; Nouvenne, A.; Meschi, T.; De' Angelis, G. L.; Di Mario, F.; Leandro, G., The role of diet in the prevention and treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Acta Biomed 2018, 89 (9-S), 60-75.
141. Solomon, S. M., Genome editing in animals: why FDA regulation matters. Nat Biotechnol 2020, 38 (2), 142-143.
142. Hartman, C.; Eliakim, R.; Shamir, R., Nutritional status and nutritional therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol 2009, 15 (21), 2570-8.
143. Yu, Y.; Chen, K. C.; Chen, J., Exclusive enteral nutrition versus corticosteroids for treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis. World J Pediatr 2019, 15 (1), 26-36.
144. Herrador-Lopez, M.; Martin-Masot, R.; Navas-Lopez, V. M., EEN Yesterday and Today ... CDED Today and Tomorrow. Nutrients 2020, 12 (12).
145. Owczarek, D.; Rodacki, T.; Domagala-Rodacka, R.; Cibor, D.; Mach, T., Diet and nutritional factors in inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol 2016, 22 (3), 895-905.
146. Aleksandrova, K.; Romero-Mosquera, B.; Hernandez, V., Diet, Gut Microbiome and Epigenetics: Emerging Links with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Prospects for Management and Prevention. Nutrients 2017, 9 (9).
147. Lewis, R. T.; Maron, D. J., Anorectal Crohn's disease. Surg Clin North Am 2010, 90 (1), 83-97, Table of Contents.
148. Petryszyn, P. W.; Witczak, I., Costs in inflammatory bowel diseases. Prz Gastroenterol 2016, 11 (1), 6-13.
149. Bernstein, C. N.; Papineau, N.; Zajaczkowski, J.; Rawsthorne, P.; Okrusko, G.; Blanchard, J. F., Direct hospital costs for patients with inflammatory bowel disease in a Canadian tertiary care university hospital. Am J Gastroenterol 2000, 95 (3), 677-83.
150. Kuenzig, M. E.; Benchimol, E. I.; Lee, L.; Targownik, L. E.; Singh, H.; Kaplan, G. G.; Bernstein, C. N.; Bitton, A.; Nguyen, G. C.; Lee, K.; Cooke-Lauder, J.; Murthy, S. K., The Impact of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada 2018: Direct Costs and Health Services Utilization. J Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2019, 2 (Suppl 1), S17-S33.
151. Vadstrup, K.; Alulis, S.; Borsi, A.; Elkjaer Stallknecht, S.; Nielsen, A.; Rikke Jorgensen, T.; Wennerstrom, C.; Qvist, N.; Munkholm, P., Societal costs attributable to Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis within the first 5 years after diagnosis: a Danish nationwide cost-of-illness study 2002-2016. Scand J Gastroenterol 2020, 55 (1), 41-46.
152. Pillai, N.; Dusheiko, M.; Burnand, B.; Pittet, V., A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies comparing conventional, biological and surgical interventions for inflammatory bowel disease. PloS one 2017, 12 (10), e0185500.
153. Iacucci, M.; Cannatelli, R.; Labarile, N.; Mao, R.; Panaccione, R.; Danese, S.; Kochhar, G. S.; Ghosh, S.; Shen, B., Endoscopy in inflammatory bowel diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic and post-pandemic period. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020, 5 (6), 598-606.
154. Lichtenstein, G. R.; Rubin, D. T., Coronavirus and Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Management Strategies for the Practicing Clinician. Am J Gastroenterol 2020, 115 (10), 1566-1569.
155. Gajendran, M.; Perisetti, A.; Aziz, M.; Raghavapuram, S.; Bansal, P.; Tharian, B.; Goyal, H., Inflammatory bowel disease amid the COVID-19 pandemic: impact, management strategies, and lessons learned. Ann Gastroenterol 2020, 33 (6), 591-602.
156. Nardone, O. M.; Rispo, A.; Testa, A.; Imperatore, N.; Pellegrini, L.; Guarino, A. D.; Ricciolino, S.; Patturelli, M.; De Palma, G.; Castiglione, F., The impact of a dedicated contact centre on the clinical outcome of patients with inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 outbreak. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020, 13, 1756284820959586.
157. Taxonera, C.; Alba, C.; Olivares, D.; Martin, M.; Ventero, A.; Canas, M., Innovation in IBD Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey on Patient-Reported Experience Measures. Inflammatory bowel diseases 2020.
158. Nardone, O. M.; Rispo, A.; Castiglione, F., Noninvasive monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease in the post COVID-19 era. Dig Liver Dis 2020, 52 (11), 1236-1237.
159. Aysha, A. A.; Rentsch, C.; Prentice, R.; Johnson, D.; Bryant, R. V.; Ward, M. G.; Costello, S. P.; Lewindon, P.; Ghaly, S.; Connor, S. J.; Begun, J.; Christensen, B., Practical management of inflammatory bowel disease patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: expert commentary from the Gastroenterological Society of Australia Inflammatory Bowel Disease faculty. Intern Med J 2020, 50 (7), 798-804.
160. Sultan, S.; Lim, J. K.; Altayar, O.; Davitkov, P.; Feuerstein, J. D.; Siddique, S. M.; Falck-Ytter, Y.; El-Serag, H. B.; [email protected], A. G. A. I. E. a., AGA Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Gastroenterology 2020, 159 (2), 739-758 e4.
161. Rubin, D. T.; Abreu, M. T.; Rai, V.; Siegel, C. A.; International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel, D., Management of Patients With Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic: Results of an International Meeting. Gastroenterology 2020, 159 (1), 6-13 e6.
162. Magro, F.; Rahier, J. F.; Abreu, C.; MacMahon, E.; Hart, A.; van der Woude, C. J.; Gordon, H.; Adamina, M.; Viget, N.; Vavricka, S.; Kucharzik, T.; Leone, S.; Siegmund, B.; Danese, S.; Peyrin-Biroulet, L., Inflammatory Bowel Disease Management During the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Ten Do's and Don'ts from the ECCO-COVID Taskforce. J Crohns Colitis 2020, 14 (14 Suppl 3), S798-S806.
163. Santiago, P.; Braga-Neto, M. B.; Edward V. Loftus, E. V., Novel Therapies for Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology & Hepatology Volume 18, Issue 8 August 2022.
164.Mamula P, Markowitz JE, Baldassano RN. Inflammatory bowel disease in early childhood and adolescence: special considerations. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2003 Sep;32(3):967-95.
165. Fish D, Kugathasan S. Inflammatory bowel disease. Adolesc Med Clin. 2004 Feb;15(1):67-90
166. Baldassano RN, Piccoli DA. Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1999 Jun;28(2):445-58.
167. Andres PG, Friedman LS. Epidemiology and the natural course of inflammatory bowel disease.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1999 Jun;28(2):255-81.
168. Raj V, Lichtenstein DR. Hepatobiliary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1999 Jun;28(2):491-513.
169. M'Koma AE. Serum biochemical evaluation of patients with functional pouches ten to 20 years after restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Colorectal Dis 2006 Oct;21(7):711-20.
170. M'Koma AE, Lindquist K, Liljeqvist L. Observations in the blood lipid profile in patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Surg Investig 2000;2(3):227-35
171. M'Koma AE, Lindquist K, Liljeqvist L. A study of plasma immunoglobulins profile in connection with restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Surg Investig 2000;2(2):125-31.
172. Hawkins AT, Um JW, M'Koma AE.Adaptive Returns of Deficient Systemic Plasma Immunoglobulin G Levels as Rehabilitation Biomarker After Emergency Colectomy for Fulminant Ulcerative Colitis. Clin Med Insights Gastroenterol 2017 Dec 13;10:1179552217746692.