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Dental implants have been recently used as a long-term treatment modality for replacing missing teeth. However, dental implants have been associated with complications such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. Peri-implant mucositis is an inflammation of the mucosa surrounding the implant and if left untreated, can lead to progressive bone loss or peri-implantitis. Peri-implantitis is a pathologic inflammatory pathologic condition that is caused by plaque accumulation on the peri-implant tissue. Several treatment approaches have been implemented to decrease the bacterial load within the peri-implant tissue, decontaminate the implant surface, or regenerating the lost tissue around dental implant. Treatment can be broadly divided into: Surgical and non-surgical treatment. Non-surgical treatment has a limited efficacy due to the restricted access to the implant surface. Whereas, surgical or flap surgery seem to improve the clinical outcome for the treatment of peri-implantitis either by utilizing a resective or regenerative approach. Preventive treatment is the best option to preclude advancement of peri-implant mucositis into peri-implantitis and therefore careful diagnosis of the peri-implant diseases are essential for successful treatment outcomes.
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