Global Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Environment, Economy, Education, Climate Change, Policy and Vaccination Trends

Main Article Content

Ayobami Matthew Olajuyin Maryamu Habila Usman Saratu Nuhu Dikko Adefunke K. Olajuyin Raji M. Hayatu Adewale James Taiwo Adeolu Dele-Osibanjo


The effects of the coronavirus are obvious in every sectors of life. The COVID-19 pandemic has evidently disturbed global and local economies and the ecosystem. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly interfered with the biotic and abiotic aspects of the environment. Hence the need for this review. This review article analyzed the effects of the COVID-19 on education, environmental ethics and policy, climate change, the physical environment, consumer behavior, the price and level of production of goods and services, disturbances in local and global economies, social gathering, the society, vaccination trends, and the impacts on man and his future generations. Articles search were conducted using, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus index journals and Google Scholar databases for research articles, review related to COVID19, environment, national development and vaccine measures adopted globally. Vaccination is taking place all over the world, and this may help to curb the spread of the virus. The reduction in emissions have led to improvements in air quality which may be beneficial to the environment. Meanwhile, significant research is provided for the causes of pollution and the sudden stop in various form of economic activities, especially transportation. The implementation of environmental policy, development of research institute, employment opportunities, discovery of vaccine have improved national development.

Article Details

How to Cite
OLAJUYIN, Ayobami Matthew et al. Global Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Environment, Economy, Education, Climate Change, Policy and Vaccination Trends. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 10, oct. 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 dec. 2022. doi:
Research Articles


1. Szatmary P, Arora A, Raraty MGT, Dunne DFJ, Baron RD, Halloran CM. Emerging phenotype of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2–associated pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(4):1551-1554.
2. Fu W, Yan S, Zong Q, Anderson-Luxford D, Song X, Lv Z, Lv C. Mental health of college students during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2021;280:7-10.
3. Abebe E, Gugsa G, Ahmed M. Review on major food-borne zoonotic bacterial pathogens. Journal of tropical medicine. 2020;2020.
4. Li X, Cao X, Guo M, Xie M, Liu X. Trends and risk factors of mortality and disability adjusted life years for chronic respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2017: systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. bmj. 2020;368.
5. Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature medicine. 2020;26(4):450-452.
6. Cui J, Li F, Shi Z-L. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature reviews microbiology. 2019;17(3):181-192.
7. Gouilh MA, Puechmaille SJ, Diancourt L, Vandenbogaert M, Serra-Cobo J, Roïg ML, Brown P, Moutou F, Caro V, Vabret A. SARS-CoV related Betacoronavirus and diverse Alphacoronavirus members found in western old-world. Virology. 2018;517:88-97.
8. Faria NR, Mellan TA, Whittaker C, Claro IM, Candido DdS, Mishra S, Crispim MA, Sales FC, Hawryluk I, McCrone JT. Genomics and epidemiology of the P. 1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil. Science. 2021;372(6544):815-821.
9. Madabhavi I, Sarkar M, Kadakol N. COVID-19: a review. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease. 2020;90(2).
10. Read JM, Bridgen JR, Cummings DA, Ho A, Jewell CP. Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions. medrxiv. 2020.
11. Boccia S, Ricciardi W, Ioannidis JP. What other countries can learn from Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA internal medicine. 2020;180(7):927-928.
12. Cereda D, Tirani M, Rovida F, Demicheli V, Ajelli M, Poletti P, Trentini F, Guzzetta G, Marziano V, Barone A. The early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.09320. 2020.
13. Baloch S, Baloch MA, Zheng T, Pei X. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine. 2020;250(4):271-278.
14. Lone SA, Ahmad A. COVID-19 pandemic–an African perspective. Emerging microbes & infections. 2020;9(1):1300-1308.
15. Organization WH. Coronavirus disease (‎‎ COVID-19)‎‎: weekly epidemiological, update 1. 2020.
16. Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, Hardwick HE, Pius R, Norman L, Holden KA, Read JM, Dondelinger F, Carson G. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. bmj. 2020;369.
17. Lohse S, Pfuhl T, Berkó-Göttel B, Rissland J, Geißler T, Gärtner B, Becker SL, Schneitler S, Smola S. Pooling of samples for testing for SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic people. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020;20(11):1231-1232.
18. COVID I, Murray CJ. Forecasting COVID-19 impact on hospital bed-days, ICU-days, ventilator-days and deaths by US state in the next 4 months. MedRxiv. 2020.
19. Mizrahi S, Vigoda‐Gadot E, Cohen N. How well do they manage a crisis? The government's effectiveness during the Covid‐19 pandemic. Public Administration Review. 2021;81(6):1120-1130.
20. Uyanah AA, John UA, Eyibio OE. Covid-19 Public Programmes and Implementation Challenges: The Nigerian Experience. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CAPACITY BUILDING IN EDUCATION AND MANAGEMENT. 2020;4(1):19-25.
21. Lorenzini D. Biopolitics in the Time of Coronavirus. Critical Inquiry. 2021;47(S2):S40-S45.
22. Singh S, Kumar R, Panchal R, Tiwari MK. Impact of COVID-19 on logistics systems and disruptions in food supply chain. International Journal of Production Research. 2021;59(7):1993-2008.
23. del Rio-Chanona RM, Mealy P, Pichler A, Lafond F, Farmer JD. Supply and demand shocks in the COVID-19 pandemic: An industry and occupation perspective. Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 2020;36(Supplement_1):S94-S137.
24. Eger L, Komárková L, Egerová D, Mičík M. The effect of COVID-19 on consumer shopping behaviour: Generational cohort perspective. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 2021;61:102542.
25. Voinea L, Filip A. Analyzing the main changes in new consumer buying behavior during economic crisis. International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories. 2011;1(1):14-19.
26. Broda C, Leibtag E, Weinstein DE. The role of prices in measuring the poor's living standards. Journal of economic Perspectives. 2009;23(2):77-97.
27. Daniels MG, Farmer JD, Gillemot L, Iori G, Smith E. A quantitative model of trading and price formation in financial markets. arXiv preprint cond-mat/0112422. 2001.
28. Balleer A, Link S, Menkhoff M, Zorn P. Demand or supply? Price adjustment during the Covid-19 pandemic. 2020.
29. Nicola M, Alsafi Z, Sohrabi C, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, Iosifidis C, Agha M, Agha R. The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International journal of surgery. 2020;78:185-193.
30. Sinsky C, Linzer M. Practice And Policy Reset Post-COVID-19: Reversion, Transition, Or Transformation? Commentary examines possible policy and practice changes for health professionals, regulators, and payers after the COVID-19 pandemic. Health Affairs. 2020;39(8):1405-1411.
31. Ellram LM, Tate WL, Billington C. Understanding and managing the services supply chain. Journal of supply chain management. 2004;40(3):17-32.
32. Lea R. The World Bank is the latest international body to downgrade growth prospects. Arbuthnot Banking Group. 2019;10.
33. Settersten Jr RA, Bernardi L, Härkönen J, Antonucci TC, Dykstra PA, Heckhausen J, Kuh D, Mayer KU, Moen P, Mortimer JT. Understanding the effects of Covid-19 through a life course lens. Advances in Life Course Research. 2020;45:100360.
34. Parris TM, Kates RW. Characterizing and measuring sustainable development. Annual Review of environment and resources. 2003;28(1):559-586.
35. Hu B, Guo H, Zhou P, Shi Z-L. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2021;19(3):141-154.
36. Ye Z-W, Yuan S, Yuen K-S, Fung S-Y, Chan C-P, Jin D-Y. Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses. International journal of biological sciences. 2020;16(10):1686.
37. Krausmann F, Erb K-H, Gingrich S, Haberl H, Bondeau A, Gaube V, Lauk C, Plutzar C, Searchinger TD. Global human appropriation of net primary production doubled in the 20th century. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences. 2013;110(25):10324-10329.
38. Champroux A, Cocquet J, Henry-Berger J, Drevet JR, Kocer A. A decade of exploring the mammalian sperm epigenome: paternal epigenetic and transgenerational inheritance. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2018;6:50.
39. Vishvkarma R, Rajender S. Could SARS‐CoV‐2 affect male fertility? Andrologia. 2020;52(9):e13712.
40. d’Orville H. COVID-19 causes unprecedented educational disruption: Is there a road towards a new normal? Prospects. 2020;49(1):11-15.
41. Kecinski M, Messer KD, McFadden BR, Malone T. Environmental and regulatory concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic: results from the pandemic food and stigma survey. Environmental and Resource Economics. 2020;76(4):1139-1148.
42. Giani P, Castruccio S, Anav A, Howard D, Hu W, Crippa P. Short-term and long-term health impacts of air pollution reductions from COVID-19 lockdowns in China and Europe: a modelling study. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2020;4(10):e474-e482.
43. Bogojević S. Covid-19, climate change action and the road to green recovery. Journal of environmental law. 2020;32(3):355-359.
44. Knoll MD, Wonodi C. Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. The Lancet. 2021;397(10269):72-74.
45. Stern AM, Markel H. The history of vaccines and immunization: familiar patterns, new challenges. Health affairs. 2005;24(3):611-621.
46. Davison T. The immunologists' debt to the chicken. British poultry science. 2003;44(1):6-21.
47. Biswas N, Mustapha T, Khubchandani J, Price JH. The nature and extent of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers. Journal of community health. 2021;46(6):1244-1251.
48. Shimabukuro TT, Kim SY, Myers TR, Moro PL, Oduyebo T, Panagiotakopoulos L, Marquez PL, Olson CK, Liu R, Chang KT. Preliminary findings of mRNA Covid-19 vaccine safety in pregnant persons. New England Journal of Medicine. 2021.
49. Jamieson DJ, Rasmussen SA. An update on COVID-19 and pregnancy. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2021.
50. Eskenazi B, Rauch S, Iurlaro E, Gunier RB, Rego A, Gravett MG, Cavoretto PI, Deruelle P, García-May PK, Mhatre M. Diabetes mellitus, maternal adiposity, and insulin-dependent gestational diabetes are associated with COVID-19 in pregnancy: The INTERCOVID study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2022;227(1):74. e71-74. e16.