Respiratory Syncytial Virus among hospitalised children in an era of Pneumococcal Vaccination

Main Article Content

Sara Chandy, PhD Anand Manoharan, PhD., MPH. MS Ramya, MBBS DNB T. Subramanian, MSc Sundaram Balasubramanian, MD


Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) is the leading cause of paediatric hospitalisations in India, especially ≤5 years of age.

Methods: Study conducted from 2019-2020 in Chennai (South India) on hospitalised children with ARTI, between 1 to 60 months of age. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples (n=256) were tested by multiplex real-time PCR for respiratory pathogens including RSV and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN

Results: Viral and RSV positivity was 81% and 48.6% respectively. Viral co-infections were evidenced in about a quarter of RSV positive children, common being human parechovirus (HPeV) and RSV co-infection. Fever, high respiratory rate, severe respiratory distress, cough, difficulty in breathing, chest indrawing and bronchiolitis were significant clinical RSV findings. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) uptake was high (89.4%) in subjects. 31.87% of vaccinated children had NP pneumococcal carriage. 75% of those with SPN carriage had viral ARTI while 35.6% were RSV positive. Statistically significant association observed between NP carriage and viral ARTI (p<0.05). Antibiotic usage in suspected RSV versus non-RSV viral ARTI was 68% and 93.8% respectively.

Conclusion: Significant burden of RSV in children < 5years seen with interplay of SPN
carriage and viral infections.

Keywords: RSV, Viral agent, Paediatric ARTI, RT-PCR, Nasopharyngeal Swab

Article Details

How to Cite
CHANDY, Sara et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus among hospitalised children in an era of Pneumococcal Vaccination. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 2, feb. 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 mar. 2023. doi:
Research Articles