A systematic review article Exposure to cement dust and respiratory health for communities residing near cement factories: A systematic review of the literature.

Main Article Content

Emmy Nkhama Micky Ndhlovu, MBCHB J. Timothy Dvonch, Prof Mary Lynam, PhD Charles Kaira, Mr. Allan Mbewe, Mr. Allan Kaira, Mr. Seter Siziya, Prof Kuku Voyi, Prof Kuku Voyi, Prof


Objective: To examine the strength of evidence through systematic review of published literature on the association between effects of exposure to cement dust on respiratory health of communities residing near cement plants. Design and data sources: A systematic search and review of observational studies in Medline, Embase, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and other sources was conducted. Eligibility criteria: Peer reviewed articles, published from 1996 to 2022 that investigated effects of exposure to cement dust on human respiratory health (pulmonary functions and symptoms) were included. The studies must have been conducted in communities residing near a cement factory; were original research and written in English. The search key words were: cement, cement dust, cement dust exposure, respiratory health, cement respiratory health effect, cement dust exposure respiratory effect, cement pulmonary function, and cement dust pulmonary health. Results: 443 studies were retrieved and screened. Only 12 of these met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were assessed as being of moderate quality; seven of these studies were cross sectional study design and only five studies performed actual measurement of ambient concentration of particulate matter (PM) while the rest assumed high exposure levels based on other studies’ findings. Furthermore, all the five studies that measured exposure used environmental monitoring rather than more precise methods of measuring personal exposure. Most studies reported higher levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in the exposed compared to the controls and demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and reduced pulmonary functions or some degree of association. Conclusion: This review shows that despite showing some degree of association between exposure to cement dust and respiratory ill health, the existing evidence is insufficient to draw firm conclusion mainly because the studies were of low quality. To improve the quality of evidence, future studies should include panel studies, personal monitoring of the exposure, source apportionment and chemical characterisation coupled with using standardized measurement tools for exposure and outcome at predetermined intervals

Keywords: respiratory, respiratory health, respiratory health for communities, Exposure to cement dust, Exposure to cement dust and respiratory health

Article Details

How to Cite
NKHAMA, Emmy et al. A systematic review article Exposure to cement dust and respiratory health for communities residing near cement factories: A systematic review of the literature.. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 12, dec. 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/3375>. Date accessed: 19 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v10i12.3375.
Review Articles


1. Mineral commodity summaries 2015. Published online 2015.
2. Arachchige USPR, Amakm A, Bmcm B, et al. Environmental Pollution by Cement Industry. Int J Res. 2019;6(8):631-635.
3. Sahana C, Iqbai A, Gupta AD et al.. Assessment of air pollution emission from Cement Industries in Nimbahera , Original Research Article Assessment of air pollution emission from Cement Industries. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(3): 133-139.
4. Meo SA, Al-Drees AM, Al Masri AA, Al Rouq F, Azeem MA. Effect of duration of exposure to cement dust on respiratory function of non-smoking cement mill workers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(1):390-398.
5. Cha KT, Oh SS, Yoon JH, et al. Adverse health outcomes in residents exposed to cement dust. Toxicol Environ Health Sci. 2012;3(4):239-244.
6. Bertoldi M, Borgini A, Tittarelli A, et al. Health effects for the population living near a cement plant: an epidemiological assessment. Environ Int. 2012;41:1-7.
7. Al-Neaimi Y, Gomes J, Lloyd OL. Respiratory illnesses and ventilatory function among workers at a cement factory in a rapidly developing country. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 2001;51(6):367-373.
8. Ginns SE, Gatrell AC. Respiratory health effects of industrial air pollution : a study in east Lancashire, UK. J Epidemiol Community.50(6): 1996:631-635.
9. Kakooei H, Gholami A, Ghasemkhani M, Hosseini M, Panahi D, et al.. Dust exposure and respiratory health effects in cement production. Acta Med Iran. 2012;50(2):122-126.
10. Abrons HL, Petersen MR, Sanderson WT, et al. Symptoms, ventilatory function, and environmental exposures in Portland cement workers. Occup Environ Med. 1988;45(6):368-375.
11. Nordby KC, Fell AKM, Notø H, et al. Exposure to thoracic dust, airway symptoms and lung function in cement production workers. Eur Respir J. 2011;38(6):1278-1286.
12. Siziya S. Associations of Cement Dust With Occurrence of Respiratory Conditions and Lung Function. East African J Public Heal. 2005;2(1):1-5.
13. Legator MS, Singleton CR, Morris DL,et al. The health effects of living near cement kilns; A symptoms survey in Midlothian, Texas. Toxicol and Health. 1998;14(6):829-842.
14. Nkhama E, Micky Ndhlovu, Dvonch JT. Prevalence of Self-Reported Pulmonary Symptoms in a Community Residing Near a Cement Factory in Chilanga, Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study. J Pollut Eff Control. 2015;03(03).
15. Tool QA, Cohort O, Studies C sectional. Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. 2017:1-4.
16. Farokhi A, Heederik D, Smit LAM. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin: a systematic review. Environ Health. 2018:1-20.
17. Mehraj SS, Bhat GA, Balkhi HM, et al. Health risks for population living in the neighborhood of a cement factory. Afri.J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013;7:1044-1052.
18. Merenu I, Mojiminiyi F, Njoku C, et al. The effect of chronic cement dust exposure on lung function of cement factory workers in sokoto, Nigeria. African J Biomed Res. 2011;10(2):139-143.
19. Nkhama E, Ndhlovu M, Timothy Dvonch J, Siziya S, Voyi K. Prevalence and determinants of mucous membrane irritations in a community near a cement factory in Zambia: A cross sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(1):871-887. doi:10.3390/ijerph120100871
20. Kim SH, Lee CG, Song HS, et al. Ventilation impairment of residents around a cement plant. Published online 2015:1-10.
21. Lee HS, Lee CG, Kim DH, et al. Emphysema prevalence related air pollution caused by a cement plant. Ann Occup Environ Med. 2016;28(1):4-11.
22. Nkhama E, Ndhlovu M, Timothy Dvonch J, et al. Effects of airborne particulate matter on respiratory health in a community near a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia: Results from a pane, study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(11).
23. Mahendra KT, Mishra RM , Sandya D. Deterioration of air quality and human health in Naubasta village due to air pollution by J.P. cement plant Rewa. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2011;2(12):1299-1302.
24. Priyanka R, Sarita P. Quantifying the Cement Air Pollution related Human Health diseases.Res. J. Recent. Sci. 2013;2:229-233.
25. Nkhama E, Ndhlovu M, Dvonch eta al. Pollution Effects & Control Prevalence of Self-Reported Pulmonary Symptoms in a Community Residing Near a Cement Factory in Chilanga , Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study. 2015;3(3).
26. Auerbach AJ, Gale W. The effects of the COVID pandemic on the federal budget outlook. Bus Econ. 2020;55(4):202-212.
27. Parsons JP, Hallstrand TS. American Thoracic Society Documents An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice. Published online 2013. doi:10.1164/rccm.201303-0437ST
28. Vos T, Abajobir AA, Abbafati C, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017;390(10100):1211-1259.
29. Li X, Chen X, Yuan X, et al. Characteristics of particulate pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) and their spacescale-dependent relationships with meteorological elements in China. Sustain. 2017;9(12):1-14.
30. Liu HY, Bartonova A, Pascal M, et al.. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment. Environ Heal A Glob Access Sci Source. 2012;11(1).
31. Gao Y, Chan EYY, Li L, Lau PWC, Wong TW. Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: A cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1).