Dendritic Cell Therapy in the palliative Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer Patients. Experience in 200 Patients

Main Article Content

Frank Gansauge Bertram Poch


Purpose: Despite improved diagnostic and therapeutic facilities median survival in pancreatic cancer is still unsatisfactory Here we retrospectively analyzed the outcome of immunotherapy in the additional palliative treatment of pancreatic cancer with long antigen exposition dendritic cell therapy (LANEX-DC®) in 200 patients who were treated at our institution (intent-to- treat-analysis).

Patients: Data were available of 200 patients.The mean interval between first diagnosis and start of treatment was 1,5 months. 148 patients received one cycle of dendritic cell therapy, 52 patients received 2 or more cycles of dendritic cell therapy.

Results: Therapy was well tolerated and no serious side effects were observed. The survival rate after 6 months was 70,9 % and afters 9 month 51,0%. The median survival time according to Kaplan- Meier regression analysis was 9,1 months. Median survival was significantly higher in the group of patients who started immunotherapy within 1,5 months following diagnosis (7,9 months versus11,8 months, p=0,009). Patients with two or more cycles of dendritic cell therapy lived significantly longer than patients with just one cycle (17,5 months versus 7,4 months, p=0,001). Interestingly younger patients < 65 years of age lived significantly longer as patients >= 65 years of age (p = 0,004).

Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate in a large retrospective cohort analysis that additional treatment with dendritic cells is highly effective and extends the median survival times up to 17,5 months in case of regular repetition of dendritic cell therapy. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that median survival can be increased by early beginning dendritic cell therapy.

Keywords: pancreatic cancer, palliative, immunotherapy, dendritic cells, LANEX-DC®

Article Details

How to Cite
GANSAUGE, Frank; POCH, Bertram. Dendritic Cell Therapy in the palliative Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer Patients. Experience in 200 Patients. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 12, dec. 2022. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 june 2024. doi:
Research Articles


1. Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E.2010 Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010; 60:277-300.
2. Burris HA, 3rd, Moore MJ, Andersen J, et al. Improvements in survival and clinical benefit with gemcitabine as first-line therapy for patients with advanced pancreas cancer: a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:2403-2413.
3. Moore MJ, Goldstein D, Hamm J, et al. Erlotinib plus gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase III trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:1960-1966.
4. Aranda E., Manzano JL, Rivera F, et al. Phase II open-label study of erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine in unresectable and/or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: relationship between skin rash and survival (Pantar study). Ann Oncol 2012;23:1919-1925.
5. Conroy T, Desseigne F, Ychou M, et al. FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 2011;364:1817-1825.
6. Von Hoff DD, Ervin T, Arena FP, et al. Increased survival in pancreatic cancer with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. N Engl J Med 2013;369:1691-1703.
7. Abbassi R, Algül H. Palliative chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer – treatment sequences. Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;4:56-61.
8. Palucka K, Banchereau J. Cancer immunotherapy via dendritic cells. Nat Rev Cancer 2012;12:265-77.
9. Sadeghzadeh M, Bornehdeli S, Mohahammadrezakhani H, et al. Dendritic cell therapy in cancer treatment; the state-of the-art. Life sciences 2020;254:e117580.
10. Kimura Y, Tsukada J, Tomoda T et al. Clinical and immunologic evaluation of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy un combination with gemcitabine and/or S-1 in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreas 2012;41:195-205.
11. Kobayashi M, Shimodaira S, Nagal K, et al. Prognostic factors related to add-on dendritic cell vaccines on patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy: a multicenter analysis. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2014;63:797-806.
12. Gansauge F, Poch B, Kleef R, Schwarz M. Effectivity of Long Antigen Exposition Dendritic Cell Therapy (LANEX-DC®) in the palliative treatment of pancreatic cancer. Curr Med Chem. 2013; 20: 4827-4835.
13. Gansauge F, Hamma T, Bach H, Poch B. Additional Long Antigen Exposition Dendritic Cell Therapy (LANEX-DC®) in the palliative Treatment of Stage 4 Colorectal Cancer Patients. Clin Oncol. 2022;7:1942-1945.
14. Gansauge F, Poch B. Evaluation of ling antigen exposition dendritic cells (LANEX-DC®) in the adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer – results of a single center analysis. Arch Cancer Sci Ther 2022;6:006-008.
15. Troy AJ, Summers Kl, Davidson PJ, Atkinson CH, Hart DN. Minimal recruitment and activation of dendritic cell within renal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 1998;4:585-93
16. Troy AJ, Davidson PJ, Atkinson CH, Hart DN. CD1a dendritic cells predominate in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder and kidney but are minimal activated. J Urol1999;161:1962-7
17. Blomstrand H, Batra A, Cheung WY, Elander NO. Real-world evidence om first- and second-line palliative chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer. World J Clin Oncol 2021;12:787-799.
18. Cartwright TH, Parisi M, Espirito JL et al. Clinical outcomes with first-line chemotherapy in a large retrospective study from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer treated in a US community oncology setting. Drugs Real World Outcomes 2018;5:149-159.
19. Kim S, Signorovitch JE, Yang H et al. Comparative effectiveness of nab-Paclitaxel plus gemcitabine vs FolFIrinOx in metastatic pancreatic cancer: A retrospective nationwide chart review in the United States. Adv Ther 2018;35:1564-1577.
20. Kordes M, Yu J, Malgerud O et al. Survival benefits of chemotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in a clinical real-world cohort. Cancers 2019;11:1326.
21. Yeo CJ, Abrams RA, Grochow LB et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation improves survival. A prospective, single-institution experience. Ann Surg 1997;225:621-633.
22. Nakamura M, Wada J, Suzuki H, et al. Long-term outcome of immunotherapy for patients with refractory pancreatic cancer. Anticancer Res 2009;29:831-836.
23. Kaneko T, Goto S, Kato A et a. Efficacy of immune-cell therapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Anticancer Res 2005;25:3709-3714.
24. Kimura Y, Tsukada J, Tomoda T et al. Clinical and immunologic evaluatin o dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in combination with gemcitabine and/or S-1 in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreas 2011;22:1536-1548.
25. Bauer C, Dauer M, Saraj S et al. Dendritic cell-based vaccination of patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma: results of a pilot study. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2011; 60:1097-1107.
26. Kondo H, Hazama S, Kawaoka T et al. Adoptive immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer using MUS1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells and activated T-lymphocytes. Anticancer Res 2008; 28:379-387.
27. Suso EM, Dueland S, Rasmussen AM et al. hTERTmRNA dendritic cellvaccination: complete response in a pancreatic cancer patient associated with response against several hTERT epitopes. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2011;60:809-818.
28. Rong Y, Qin X, Jin D et al. A phase I pilot trial of MUC1-peptide-pulsed dendritic cells in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Clin Exp Med 2011; 12:173-180.
29. Oji Y, Nakamori S, Fujikawa M et al. Overexpression of the Wilms’ tumor gene WT1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Sci 2004; 95:583-587.
30. Kobayashi M, Sakabe T, Abe H et al. DC-vaccine study group at the Japan society of innovative cell therapy (J-SICT) dendritic cell-based immunotherapy targeting synthesized peptides for advanced biliary tract cancer. J Gastrointest Surg 2013; 17:1609-1617.