Measuring Executive Function Using Eye Movements on a Computerized Trail Making Test: A Pilot Study

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Maya Libben Graham M. B. Armstrong Damian Leitner Harry Miller


Objective: The current study investigated the validity of a novel computerized version of the Trail Making Test, and tested whether the integration of eye-tracking increased specificity and predictive power with other tests of executive function. We were specifically interested in whether eye movements, recorded during the completion of a computerized version of the Trail Making Test, served as a predictor of executive function as measured by the computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.

Methods: Forty participants completed the pencil-and-paper Trail Making Test, the computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the computerized Trail Making Test. Eye movements were recorded during the completion of the computerized Trail Making Test.

Results: Eye-tracking measures for part B of the computerized Trail Making Test were correlated with T-scores for perseverative and non-perseverative responses/errors on the computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that eye-tracking measures predicted variance for perseverative and non-perseverative errors/responses on the computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, above and beyond Trail Making Test completion time.

Conclusions: The current pilot study supported the use of computerized versions of the Trail Making Test and provided preliminary evidence that eye movements may significantly add to the specificity in assessing executive function using the Trail Making Test.

Keywords: Trail Making Test, Executive Function, Eye Tracking, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Computerized Test Administration

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LIBBEN, Maya et al. Measuring Executive Function Using Eye Movements on a Computerized Trail Making Test: A Pilot Study. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 3, mar. 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 apr. 2024. doi:
Research Articles


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