Havana Syndrome: New Recommendations and Enrollment Criteria for a Shared Study of Possible Cases

Main Article Content

Franco Posa Maurizio Gorini Valeria Rondinelli Francesco Sclavi Jessica Leone Matteo Posa


Background: From November 2016 to the summer of 2021, some U.S. diplomats and their family members residing in Havana and other locations, including China, Russia, Colombia, Switzerland, and France, reported the sudden onset of auditory, vestibular, and neurological symptoms. The aim of this study is to define enrollment criteria for patients with a possible diagnosis of Havana Syndrome.

Methods: This study, through a review of the scientific literature, proposes the definition of criteria for proper enrollment of patients with a possible diagnosis of "Havana Syndrome".

Results: In view of the increasing number of cases, their wide geographic distribution, and the lack of certainty regarding etiopathogenesis, it is essential to propose a strategy for sharing case histories.

Conclusions: A correct enrollment of patients is crucial since specialists can then disclose new strategies for the study of case histories and for a clear definition of the diagnosis. This way, it will be possible to have a wide discussion of clinical and epidemiological results among specialists in different medical, engineering, and intelligence disciplines.


Keywords: Havana syndrome, recommendations, criteria, diagnosis, enrollment, symptoms

Article Details

How to Cite
POSA, Franco et al. Havana Syndrome: New Recommendations and Enrollment Criteria for a Shared Study of Possible Cases. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 3, mar. 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/3617>. Date accessed: 20 apr. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v11i3.3617.
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