Hydrodynamic theory of atherosclerosis formation in humans - «Reaction to spasm». Cylindrical cholesterol plaque is the cause of heart attack and stroke.

Main Article Content

Rusanov Sergey

Abstract

An analysis of scientific literature, photo and video materials showed that plaques in humans are completely different from plaques in animals and the «contemporary official description» of AS. They differ in appearance, lack of inflammation of the walls of the artery, clinical manifestations, complications. It has also been found that «true» plaque has nothing to do with the first four types of atherosclerosis in humans. It was necessary to understand how in the lumen of a healthy artery a strong, elastic, yellow, homogeneous plaque in the form of a hollow cylinder - a «cylindrical plaque» - appears very quickly? As a result, the «Hydrodynamic Theory» was proposed, which answers all the complex questions related to the appearance, aging and destruction of «true» plaques in humans. It describes the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, classification, complications, methods of treatment and prevention of «cylindrical» plaques that cause heart attacks and strokes in humans.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, LDL, Heart attack, Stroke, Hypertension, Thrombus, Embolus, Endothelial dysfunction, Dissection

Article Details

How to Cite
SERGEY, Rusanov. Hydrodynamic theory of atherosclerosis formation in humans - «Reaction to spasm». Cylindrical cholesterol plaque is the cause of heart attack and stroke.. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 3, mar. 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/3663>. Date accessed: 13 apr. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v11i3.3663.
Section
Research Articles

References

1. Buja LM. Nikolai N. Anitschkow and the lipid hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc. Pathol. 2014. vol. 23. no. 3. P. 183-184. PMID: 24484612. DOI: 10.1016/j.carpath.2013.12.004.
2. Atherosclerosis. Wikipedia. [Internet] [reviewed 2022 Sept. 5027]. Link
3. What Is Atherosclerosis? - NHLBI, IH. [Internet] [reviewed 2022 Sept. 27]. Link
4. Bergheanu SC, Bodde MC, Jukema JW. Pathophysiology and treatment of atherosclerosis: Current view and future perspective on lipoprotein modification treatment. Neth Heart J. 2017 Apr;25(4):231-242. PMID: 28194698; PMCID: PMC5355390; DOI: 10.1007/s12471-017-0959-2.
5. Crowther MA. Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2005:436-41. PMID: 16304416; DOI: 10.1182/asheducation-2005.1.436.
6. Zhao Y, Qu H, Wang Y, et al. Small rodent models of atherosclerosis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Sep;129:110426. Epub 2020 Jun 20. PMID: 32574973; DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110426.
7. Vernon ST, Coffey S, Bhindi R, et al. Increasing proportion of ST elevation myocardial infarction patients with coronary atherosclerosis poorly explained by standard modifiable risk factors. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017 Nov;24(17):1824-1830. DOI: 10.1177/2047487317720287.
8. Office of the Surgeon General (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US). The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2004. PMID: 20669512.
9. Henning RJ. Obesity and obesity-induced inflammatory disease contribute to atherosclerosis: a review of the pathophysiology and treatment of obesity. Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2021 Aug 15;11(4):504-529. PMID: 34548951; PMCID: PMC8449192.
10. Hamaad A, Lip GY, MacFadyen RJ. Unheralded sudden cardiac death: do autonomic tone and thrombosis interact as key factors in aetiology? Ann Med. 2003;35(8):592-604. DOI: 10.1080/07853890310016351. PMID: 14708969.
11. Chevalier P, Dacosta A, Defaye P, et al. (1998) Arrhythmic cardiac arrest due to isolated coronary artery spasm: Long-term outcome of seven resuscitated patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 31:57-61 PMID: 9426018; DOI: 10.1016/s0735-1097(97)00442-7
12. Connelly KA, MacIsaac AI, Jelinek VM. Stress, myocardial infarction, and the «tako-tsubo» phenomenon. Heart. 2004 Sep;90(9):e52. PMID: 15310721; PMCID: PMC1768425; DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2004.038851
13. Lowenstein CJ, Dinerman JL, Snyder SH (1994) Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger. Ann Intern Med 120:227-237. PMID: 8273987; DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-120-3-199402010-00009
14. Leor J, Poole WK, Kloner RA. Sudden cardiac death triggered by an earthquake. N Engl J Med 1996; 334:413- 4195018Kark JD, Goldman S, Epstein L. Iraqi missile attacks on Israel. JAMA1995;273:1208-10. PMID: 7707629; DOI: 10.1001/jama.273.15.1208
15. Witte DR, Bots ML, Hoes AW, et al. Cardiovascular mortality in Dutch men during 1996 European football championship: longitudinal population study. BMJ 2000;321:1552-4. PMID: 11124170; PMCID: PMC27557; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.321.7276.1552
16. Allegra JR, Mostashari F, Rothman J, et al. Cardiac events in New Jersey after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack. J Urban Health 2005;82(3):358-63. PMID: 16000653; PMCID: PMC3456051; DOI: 10.1093/jurban/jti087
17. Feng J, Lenihan DJ, Johnson MM, et al. Cardiac sequelae in Brooklyn after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Clin Cardiol 2006;29 (1):13-7. PMID 16477772.
18. Rosengren A, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. INTERHEART investigators. Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11119 cases and 13648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004 Sep 11-17;364(9438):953-62. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17019-0. PMID: 15364186.
19. Shen BJ, Avivi YE, Todaro JF et al.Anxiety characteristics independently and prospectively predict myocardial infarction in men: the unique contribution of anxiety among psychologic factors J Am Coll Cardiol, 51 (2008), pp. 113-119 PMID: 18191733; DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.09.033
20. Mittleman MA, Maclure M, Sherwood JB, et al. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction onset by episodes of anger. Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study Investigators. Circulation. 1995 Oct 1;92(7):1720-5. DOI: 10.1161/01.cir.92.7.1720; PMID: 7671353.
21. Allison TG. Identification and treatment of psychosocial risk factors for coronary artery disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996 Aug;71(8):817-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0025-6196(11)64849-0; PMID: 8691905.
22. Tsouna-Hadjis ED, Mitsibounas DN, Kallergis GE, et al. Autonomic nervous system responses to personal stressful events in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Preliminary results. Psychother Psychosom. 1998;67(1):31-6. DOI: 10.1159/000012256; PMID: 9491438.
23. Thombs BD , Bass EB , Ford DE , et al. Prevalence of depression in survivors of acute myocardial infarction. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21:30-38 PMID: 16423120; PMCID: PMC1484630; DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.00269.x
24. Wells KB , Rogers W , Burnam MA , et al. Course of depression in patients with hypertension, myocardial infarction, or insulin-dependent diabetes. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150:632-638 PMID: 8465882; DOI: 10.1176/ajp.150.4.632
25. van Melle JP , de Jonge P , Spijkerman TA , et al. Prognostic association of depression following myocardial infarction with mortality and cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med 2004; 66:814-822 PMID: 15564344; DOI: 10.1097/01.psy.0000146294.82810.9c
26. Kaptein KI , de Jonge P , van den Brink RH , et al. Course of depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction and cardiac prognosis: a latent class analysis. Psychosom Med 2006; 68:662-668 PMID: 16987947. DOI: 10.1097/01.psy.0000233237.79085.57
27. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Alvin Wang. [Video], Carotid endarterectomy. [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; Link: YouTube
28. YouTube [Internet]. [Place unknown]: Nejrokhirurgiya. [Video], Operatsiya - karotidnaya ehndarterehktomiya 2 (translation - “Operation - carotid endarterectomy 2”); [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; Link: YouTube
29. YouTube [Internet]. [Place unknown]: Surgery Department. [Video], Аngioplastika: stentirovanie podklûčičnoj arterii 2. Karotidnaâ èndarterèktomiâ (translation - “1. Angioplasty: stenting of the subclavian artery 2. Carotid endarterectomy”); [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; Link: YouTube
30. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Surg Spot. [Video], Karotidnaya endarterektomiya: hirurgicheskoe lechenie kak profilaktika ishemicheskogo insulta (translation-“Carotid endarterectomy: surgical treatment as prevention of ischemic stroke”); [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; Link: YouTube
31. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: NSPC Brain & Spine Surgery. [Video], Carotid surgery. [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; Link: YouTube
32. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: UCLA Health. [Video], Carotid Artery Disease & Stroke Angioplasty - Dr. May Nour | UCLAMDChat. [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; Link: YouTube
33. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Icahn School of Medicine. [Video], The Mount Sinai Surgical Film Atlas: Carotid Endarterectomy; 2018 July 2 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [10:44] Available from: YouTube
34. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Houston Methodist DeBakey CV Education. [Video], Carotid Endarterectomy - CEA (Maham Rahimi, MD, Travis Vowels, MD, Thomas Loh, MD); 2018 July 2 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [10:44] Available from: YouTube
35. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Houston Methodist DeBakey CV Education. [Video], Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) Part 2 (ALAN B. LUMSDEN, MD); 2018 July 2 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [10:44] Available from: YouTube
36. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Barrow Neurological Institute. [Video], Carotid Endarterectomy Requiring Intra-arterial Shunting; 2018 July 2 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [10:44] Available from: YouTube
37. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: SurgMedia. [Video], Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA); 2018 July 2 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [10:44] Available from: YouTube
38. Rusanov S. The affection of the disturbance of the hydrodynamics of blood in case of stress on pathological increase of level of low density lipoproteins in blood. The formation of cylindrical plaques, and their participation in the development of acute ischemic disorders of heart and brain. Med Hypotheses. 2017 Sep;106:61-70. Epub 2017 Jul 3. PMID: 28818274; DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2017.07.001.
39. Rusanov S. New in the etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The two different types of cholesterol plaques have nothing to do with each other. Ann Circ. 2021 6(1): 004-011. DOI: 10.17352/ac.000018.
40. Rusanov S. Atherosclerosis in Animals is a Separate Type of Atherosclerosis that has Nothing to do with the Two Types of Atherosclerosis in Humans. Medical Research Archives [S.l.]. v. 10, n. 4, apr. 2022. Date accessed: 07 Sept. 2022. DOI: https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2760.
41. Rusanov S. Refutation of the Identity of the Contemporary Official Description of Atherosclerosis with the Real Atherosclerotic Lesions in Humans and Animals , Medical Research Archives: Vol 10 No 11 (2023): NOVEMBER ISSUE, VOl. 10 ISsue 11 DOI: https://esmed.org/MRA/index.php/mra/article/view/3293
42. Pozharissky K., ARIEL B. Nikolai Nikolaevich Anichkov (1885—1964)., Russian Research Center for Radiology and Surgical Technologies, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Phthsiopulmonology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia; Saint Petersburg City Postmortem Examination Bureau, Saint Petersburg, Russia [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]. Link
43. Cavaillon JM. Once upon a time, inflammation. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 9;27:e20200147. doi: 10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2020-0147. PMID: 33889184. PMCID: PMC8040910 . DOI: 10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2020-0147
44. Chapter 3. The Acute Inflammatory Response. In: Chandrasoma P, Taylor CR. eds. Concise Pathology, 3e. McGraw Hill; 1998. Accessed January 21, 2023. Link
45. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Galina Skokova. [Video], Endarterectomy; 2012 Jul 2 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [1:57, 9:19, 13:50]. Available from: YouTube
46. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: CTSNetVideo. [Video], Coronary Endarterectomy of the Left Anterior Descending Artery; [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [2:50, 4:56] Available from: YouTube
47. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: CTSNetVideo. [Video], Triple Coronary Endarterectomy in a Patient Undergoing CABG; 2019 Jan 29 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [5:11] Available from: YouTube
48. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Dr. Sandeep Burathoki. [Video], Carotid Artery Stenting video 2012 Nov 16 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [2:00-2:30] Available from: YouTube
49. File: Carotid Plaque.jpg [reviewed 2022 June 27] English. Link
50. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Navigating Radiology. [Video], Doppler Ultrasound Part 1 - Principles (w/ focus on Spectral Waveforms); 2018 July 2 [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [10:44] Available from: YouTube
51. Brinjikji W, Huston J 3rd, Rabinstein AA, et al. Contemporary carotid imaging: from degree of stenosis to plaque vulnerability. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan;124(1):27-42. DOI: 10.3171/2015.1.JNS142452. Epub 2015 Jul 31. PMID: 26230478.
52. Stary HC, Chandler AB, Dinsmore RE, et al. A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a histological classification of atherosclerosis. A report from the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995; 15: 1512- 1531. PMID: 7648691; DOI: 10.1161/01.cir.92.5.1355
53. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: Tech Insider. [Video], Devices 'eat' bad cholesterol; [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [0:40, 0:54] Available from: YouTube
54. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: FOX NASHVILLE. [Video], SPECIAL REPORT: Plaque Removal; [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [0:40, 0:54] Available from: YouTube
55. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: BD. [Video], Rotarex™ Rotational Excisional Atherectomy System; [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [0:40, 0:54] Available from: YouTube
56. YouTube [Internet]. [place unknown]: asegty70. [Video], Forward Looking IVUS; [reviewed 2023 Jan. 05]; [0:40, 0:54] Available from: YouTube
57. Frostegård J. Immunity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. BMC Med. 2013 May 1;11:117. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-117. PMID: 23635324; PMCID: PMC3658954. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-117