Comprehensive Management of Hypertension: Enhancing Non-Pharmacological Treatments

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Cholid Tri Tjahjono Astrid Pramudya


Background: In the entire world, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are primarily brought on by hypertension, or elevated blood pressure. From 4.5% (0.9 billion adults) in 2000 to 7% (1.6 billion adults) in 2010, the prevalence of hypertension has increased in relation to the global burden of diseases. Comprehensive management including non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies of hypertension.


Healthy lifestyle choices can lower cardiovascular risk and postpone or prevent the onset of high blood pressure. Additionally, the first line of antihypertensive therapy is lifestyle change. One of the best way of life adjustments for lowering blood pressure is weight loss. Physical activity on a regular basis can reduce high blood pressure by 5 to 8 mm Hg. Every day, try to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise, such as walking, running, cycling, swimming, or dancing. High-intensity interval training is an alternative option. Short bursts of intense exercise are interspersed with slower intervals of activity during this form of training. A diet low in saturated fat, salt, and cholesterol and high in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products can reduce high blood pressure by up to 11 mm Hg. It is possible to reduce blood pressure by roughly 4 mm Hg by limiting alcohol consumption to fewer than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for males. Quitting smoking can potentially extend life by lowering blood pressure, lowering the risk of heart disease, and improving general health. The quality of your sleep can affect your blood pressure. Chronic (long-term) emotional stress may be a factor in high blood pressure. Controlling blood pressure also requires taking it at home and going to the doctor frequently. Strong social networks of family and friends are crucial for health. Following lifestyle changes, pharmacological therapy should be started. The choice of medication is based on the patient's age, general cardiovascular risk, and co-morbidities. The pharmaceutical treatment plans suggested here are generally in line with the most recent US and European recommendations.


Conclusion: The optimal initial treatment strategy for hypertension should be comprehensive hypertension management, which focuses on lowering total cardiovascular risk through lifestyle changes, BP lowering, and lipid management.

Keywords: Hypertension, lifestyle management, exercise, non-pharmacological

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How to Cite
TJAHJONO, Cholid Tri; PRAMUDYA, Astrid. Comprehensive Management of Hypertension: Enhancing Non-Pharmacological Treatments. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 3, mar. 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 apr. 2024. doi:
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