The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Venous Flow Volume of Lower Extremity

Main Article Content

Tugce Ozlem Kalayci, MD Fitnet Sonmezgoz, MD Mert Kestelli, MD

Abstract

Aims: The purpose of this study was comparing flow volume rates, velocities and diameters of lower extremity arteries and veins of smokers and non-smokers with peripheral arterial disease.


Patients and methods: The study consisted of 58 patients, 26 smokers and 32 non-smokers, who had no smoked for at least 5 years prior to the investigation. Colour Duplex Ultrasonography measurements of the common femoral artery, common femoral vein, popliteal artery, popliteal vein, anterior tibial artery, anterior tibial vein, posterior tibial artery and posterior tibial vein were obtained in the supine position. Differences in the diameters, blood flow velocities, and flow volume rates of the vessels were compared according to the sex, age and Colour Duplex Ultrasonography measurements of the patients.


Results: The diameters of the common femoral artery, popliteal vein and posterior tibial artery were statistically significantly reduced in smokers. The flow volume rate of the popliteal artery showed a significant correlation with that of crural vessels in non-smokers but not in smokers.


Conclusions: The absence of a statistically significant correlation between the measurements of the popliteal artery and crural vessels in smokers shows that cigarette smoking reduces the diameters and flow volumes of crural vessels, potentially giving rise to impaired tissue perfusion.

Keywords: Colour Duplex Ultrasound, Spectral Doppler Ultrasound, vascular, arteries, veins

Article Details

How to Cite
KALAYCI, Tugce Ozlem; SONMEZGOZ, Fitnet; KESTELLI, Mert. The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Venous Flow Volume of Lower Extremity. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 4, may 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/3852>. Date accessed: 23 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v11i4.3852.
Section
Research Articles

References

1. Lu JT, Creager MA. The relationship of cigarette smoking to peripheral arterial disease. Rev Cardiovasc Med.2004; 5:189–193.
2. Afaq A, Montgomery PS, Scott KJ, Blevins SM, Whitsett TL, Gardner AW. The effect of current cigarette smoking on calf muscle hemoglobin oxygen saturation in patients with intermittent claudication. Vasc Med.2007; 12:167–173.
3. Price JF, Mowbray PI, Lee AJ, Rumley A, Lowe A, Fowkes FG. Relationship between smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease: Edinburgh Artery Study. Eur Heart J. 1999; 20:344–53.
4. Morotti E, Battaglia B, Fabbri R, Paradisi R, Venturoli S, Battaglia C. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J FertilSteril. 2014; 7:301–312.
5. Ambrose JA, Barua RS. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 43:1731–1737.
6. Clair C, Rigotti NA, Porneala B, Fox CS, D’Agostino RB, Pencina MJ. Association of smoking cessation and weight change with cardiovascular disease among adults with and without diabetes. JAMA.2013; 309:1014–1021.
7. Wang W, Zhao T, Geng K, Yuan G, Chen Y and Xu Y. Smoking and the Pathophysiology of Peripheral Artery Disease. Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021; 8:704106.
8. Criqui MH, Aboyans V. Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease. Circ Res. 2015; 116:1509–26.
9. Creager MA. Decade in review–peripheral vascular disease: 10 years of breakthroughs in peripheral vascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2014; 11:635–6.
10. Morley RL, Sharma A, Horsch AD, Hinchliffe RJ. Peripheral artery disease. BMJ. 2018; 360:j5842.
11. Willigendael EM, Teijink JA, Bartelink ML, Kuiken BW, Boiten J, Moll FL, et al. Influence of smoking on incidence and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2004; 40:1158–65.
12. Aday AW, Matsushita K. Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease and polyvascular disease. Circ Res. 2021; 128:1818–32.
13. Ngu NL, McEvoy M. Environmental tobacco smoke and peripheral arterial disease: a review. Atherosclerosis. 2017; 266:113–20.
14. Dawson D, Vincent MA, Barrett EJ, et al. Vascular recruitment in skeletal muscle during exercise and hyperinsulinemia assessed by contrast ultrasound. Am J Physiol. 2002; 282:E714 –720.
15. Bragadeesh T, Sari I, Pascotto M, Micari A, Kaul S, Lindner JR. Detection of peripheral vascular stenosis by assessing skeletal muscle flow reserve. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 45:780–785.
16. Kalayci TO, Sonmezgoz F, Apaydin M, et al. Venousflow volumemeasured by duplexultra-soundcan be used as an indicator of impaired tissue perfusion in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Med Ultrason. 2015; 17: 482-6. doi: 10.11152/mu.2013.2066.174.
17. Kalayci TO, Cakir V, Kestelli M, Apaydin M. Measure the vascular flow volume rather than vascular stenosis and pressure gradient. Heart Lung Circ. 2015 Jun; 24 (6): 617-20. doi:10.1016/j.hlc.2014.12.164.
18. Findlay BB, Gupta P, Szijgyarto IC, Pyke KE. Impaired brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation in response to handgrip exercise-induced increases in shear stress in young smokers. Vasc Med. 2013; 18(2):63–71. doi: 10.1177/1358863X13480259.
19. Lu L, Mackay DF, Pell JD. Meta-analysis of the association between cigarette smoking andperipheral arterial disease. Heart. 2014; 100:414–423.
20. Celermajer DS, Sorensen KE, Georgakopoulos D, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with dose-related and potentially reversible impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation in healthy young adults. Circulation.1993; 88: 2149–2155.
21. Barua RS, Ambrose JA, Eales-Reynolds LJ, DeVoe MC, Zervas JG, Saha DC. Dysfunctional endothelial nitric oxide biosynthesis inhealthy smokers with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Circulation. 2001; 104:1905–1910.
22. Celermajer DS, Adams MR, Clarkson P, et al. Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy youngadults. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334:150–154.
23. Kugiyama K, Yasue H, Ohgushi M, et al. Deficiency in nitric oxidebioactivity in epicardial coronary arteries of cigarette smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 28:1161–1167.
24. Sumida H, Watanabe H, Kugiyama K, Ohgushi M, Matsumura T,Yasue H. Does passive smoking impair endothelium-dependentcoronary artery dilation in women? J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 31:811–815.
25. Ijzerman RG, Serne EH, van Weissenbruch MM, van WeissenbruchMM, de Jongh RT, Stehouwer CD. Cigarette smoking is associatedwith an acute impairment of microvascular function in humans. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003; 104:247–252.
26. Mayhan WG, Sharpe GM. Effect of cigarette smoke extract on arteriolar dilatation in vivo. J Appl Physiol. 1996; 81:1996–2003.
27. Mayhan WG, Patel KP. Effect of nicotine on endotheliumdependentarteriolar dilatation in vivo. Am J Physiol. 1997; 272:H2337–2342.
28. Ota Y, Kugiyama K, Sugiyama S, et al. Impairment of endotheliumdependent-relaxation of rabbit aortas by cigarette smoke extract—roleof free radicals and attenuation by captopril. Atherosclerosis. 1997; 131:195–202.
29. Barua RS, Ambrose JA, Srivastava S, DeVoe MC, Eales-ReynoldsLJ. Reactive oxygen species are involved in smoking-induced dysfunctionof nitric oxide biosynthesis and upregulation of endothelialnitric oxide synthase: an in vitro demonstration in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Circulation. 2003; 107:2342–2347.
30. McVeigh GE, Lemay L, Morgan D, Cohn JN. Effects of long-termcigarette smoking on endothelium-dependent responses in humans. Am J Cardiol. 1996; 78:668–672.
31. Napoli C, Ignarro LJ. Nitric oxide and atherosclerosis. Nitric Oxide. 2001; 5:88–97.
32. Gardner AW, Sieminski DJ, Killewich LA. The effect of cigarette smoking on free living daily physical activity in older claudication patients. Angiology.1997; 48:947–955.
33. Gardner AW, Killewich LA, Montgomery PS, Katzel LI. Theresponse to exercise rehabilitation in smoking and non-smokingpatients with intermittent claudication. J Vasc Surg.2004; 39:531–538.