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Background: Intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare in neonates, accounting for less than 2% of all relevant cases that occur during the first decade of life. More precisely, intracranial aneurysms in children (less than 18 years old) are rarely been recorded, and their epidemiology is poorly investigated. Details about this pathology in this specific population are lacking. Because of the scarcity of this entity along with the peculiar characteristics of this patient group, the treatment of aneurysms of the cerebral circulation of these patients is challenging. The prevalence of Intracranial aneurysms in children is much lower than in adults· apart from that, several differences exist, centered on their etiology, demographic variables, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphological characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome in pediatric and adult intracranial aneurysms. We describe the case of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and extra-axial hemorrhage in an infant, as well as the review of the relevant current literature.
Case description: We report the case of a three months old infant who was admitted to our hospital due to episodes of vomiting, associated with loss of consciousness and an epileptic ictus. An MRI-MRA scan and a digital subtraction angiography were immediately performed, which revealed the presence of a giant fusiform aneurysm near the origin of the right anterior cerebral artery. Because of the location and shape of the aneurysmal sac, the ipsilateral internal carotid artery was totally occluded with detachable coils. At follow-up, the child experienced normal psychomotor development with no motor deficit.
Conclusions: Intracranial aneurysms should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants and neonates who present with acute raised intracranial pressure. Even though rupture of an intracranial aneurysm in this age group is rare, subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common mode of presentation. Intracranial aneurysms are frequently larger than 10 mm and located on the middle cerebral artery. The treatment could be surgical or endovascular, depending on the characteristics of the aneurysm. Seizures and cranial nerve involvement are the most common presenting features in children. The most commonly encountered sites of origin for such aneurysms are the posterior circulation, along with the internal carotid artery bifurcation. Current literature and case series suggest that there is increased incidence of giant, posttraumatic, and mycotic aneurysms in children. Based on the most recently published data, the treatment of ruptured and unruptured pediatric aneurysms is related with an increased incidence of an uneventful outcome, which reaches 95% in the current series. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are more commonly encountered in male patients and have a predilection for the terminal ICA bifurcation.
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