Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Amongst a Population of Black Pregnant Women: An On-The-Spot Assessment in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

Main Article Content

Gbolahan Oladele Obajimi Olukemi Abimbola Adekanmbi Chioma Mary Muotoh David Siji Adeoye Ikponmwosa Gabriel Ebengho Oluwasemilore Peace Atere Oluwaferanmi David Salami


Background: COVID-19 vaccination is generally regarded as an important preventive intervention in reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 which became a pandemic in March 2020. Although various excuses have been reported as reasons for vaccine hesitancy, vulnerable groups such as pregnant women have been excluded from immunization. This study sought to explore COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy amongst pregnant women receiving ante-natal care at a Nigerian teaching hospital.

Methods: One hundred and ninety-eight consecutively selected women attending the ante-natal clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria were enlisted, and a self-administered questionnaire was completed by each participant. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23. Descriptive analysis was generated and summarized with the aid of a pie chart, bar chart and frequency tables. Chi-square statistic was used to test for associations between categorical variables and p value was set at 0.05.

Result: The mean age of the participants was 31.78±5.26 years. 152(76.8%) were gainfully employed and only 7 participants (3.5%) lacked formal education. 160 participants (83.3%) had good knowledge about the disease while 120 (62.5%) had good knowledge about the available vaccines. 46 participants (23.2%) had received their 1st vaccination prior to pregnancy and 115 (58.1%) were willing to receive the vaccine in their index pregnancy. 83 participants (41.9%), however, were unwilling to receive the vaccine and this hesitancy did not show any association with knowledge about COVID-19, educational attainment, employment status or ethnicity (p>0.05).

Conclusion: There exist vaccine hesitancy amongst pregnant women in developing countries and this may stem from deep socio-cultural beliefs and taboos about care in pregnancy. There is a need for continuous education on vaccine safety and possibly incorporating COVID-19 vaccination where applicable as part of routine immunization in pregnancy.

Keywords: COVID-19,, Vaccine Hesitancy, Black Pregnant Women

Article Details

How to Cite
OBAJIMI, Gbolahan Oladele et al. Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Amongst a Population of Black Pregnant Women: An On-The-Spot Assessment in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 10, oct. 2023. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 july 2024. doi:
Research Articles


1. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang Y. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: The mystery and the miracle. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020;92(4):401-402. doi:10.1002/jmv.25678
2. Yoda T, Katsuyama H. Willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination in Japan. Vaccines. 2021;9(1):48. doi:10.3390/vaccines9010048
3. Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2020;91(1):157-160. doi:10.23750/abm.v91i1.9397
4. Badell M, Dude CM, Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ. Covid-19 vaccination in pregnancy. BMJ. August 2022:e069741. doi:10.1136/bmj-2021-069741
5. Diseases LI. The intersection of COVID-19 and mental health. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020;20(11):1217. doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30797-0
6. Citu IM, Cîtu C, Gorun F, et al. Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination Hesitancy among Romanian Pregnant Women. Vaccines. 2022;10(2):275. doi:10.3390/vaccines10020275
7. Skjefte M, Ngirbabul M, Akeju O, et al. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant women and mothers of young children: results of a survey in 16 countries. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2021;36(2):197-211. doi:10.1007/s10654-021-00728-6
8. Badr DA, Mattern J, Carlin A, et al. Are clinical outcomes worse for pregnant women at ≥20 weeks’ gestation infected with coronavirus disease 2019? A multicenter case-control study with propensity score matching. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2020;223(5):764-768. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2020.07.045
9. Allotey J, Fernández S, Bonet M, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. September 2020:m3320. doi:10.1136/bmj.m3320
10. Nguyen LH, Hoang MT, Nguyen LD, et al. Acceptance and willingness to pay for COVID‐19 vaccines among pregnant women in Vietnam. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2021;26(10):1303-1313. doi:10.1111/tmi.13666
11. Ayhan ŞG, Oluklu D, Atalay A, et al. COVID‐19 vaccine acceptance in pregnant women. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2021;154(2):291-296. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13713
12. Skirrow H, Barnett S, Bell S, et al. Women’s views on accepting COVID-19 vaccination during and after pregnancy, and for their babies: a multi-methods study in the UK. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2022;22(1). doi:10.1186/s12884-021-04321-3
13. Kalafat E, O’Brien P, Heath PT, et al. Benefits and potential harms of COVID ‐19 vaccination during pregnancy: evidence summary for patient counseling. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2021;57(5):681-686. doi:10.1002/uog.23631
14. Rasmussen SA, Watson AK, Kennedy ED, Broder KR, Jamieson DJ. Vaccines and pregnancy: Past, present, and future. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2014;19(3):161-169. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2013.11.014
15. Saleh E, Moody MA, Walter EB. Effect of antipyretic analgesics on immune responses to vaccination. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2016;12(9):2391-2402. doi:10.1080/21645515.2016.1183077
16. Blakeway H, Prasad S, Kalafat E, et al. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy: coverage and safety. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2022;226(2):236.e1-236.e14. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.007
17. Cascini F, Pantović A, Al-Ajlouni YA, Failla G, Ricciardi W. Attitudes, acceptance and hesitancy among the general population worldwide to receive the COVID-19 vaccines and their contributing factors: A systematic review. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;40:101113. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101113
18. Rane MS, Kochhar S, Poehlein E, et al. Determinants and trends of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and vaccine uptake in a national cohort of US adults: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2022;191(4):570-583. doi:10.1093/aje/kwab293
19. Wang Y, Liu Y. Multilevel determinants of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in the United States: A rapid systematic review. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2022;25:101673. doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101673
20. Robertson E, Reeve KS, Niedzwiedz CL, et al. Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK household longitudinal study. Brain Behavior and Immunity. 2021;94:41-50. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2021.03.008
21. Khubchandani J, Sharma S, Price JH, Wiblishauser M, Sharma M, Webb FJ. COVID-19 Vaccination hesitancy in the United States: A rapid national assessment. Journal of Community Health. 2021;46(2):270-277. doi:10.1007/s10900-020-00958-x
22. Latkin CA, Dayton L, Yi G, Colon B, Kong X. Mask usage, social distancing, racial, and gender correlates of COVID-19 vaccine intentions among adults in the US. PLOS ONE. 2021;16(2):e0246970. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0246970
23. Roozenbeek J, Schneider CR, Dryhurst S, et al. Susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19 around the world. Royal Society Open Science. 2020;7(10):201199. doi:10.1098/rsos.201199