Postoperative Extracranial Glioblastoma

Main Article Content

Gang Zhou Tao L Wan Bing Leng Frank Yuan Shan

Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a WHO grade 4 primary brain tumor with a recalcitrant and dismal prognosis and a 14-month-median survival time. The extracranial spread of GBM is so rare that historically it was not believed to spread outside of the central nervous system (CNS). Since the first extracranial spread of GBM was described in 1928, more cases have been reported. However, the mechanisms have yet to be elucidated due to the rareness of well-documented cases. Here, we reported two cases of GBM with postoperative extracranial spread and reviewed related literature.


 

Keywords: Glioblastoma, extracranial spread

Article Details

How to Cite
ZHOU, Gang et al. Postoperative Extracranial Glioblastoma. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 1, jan. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/4811>. Date accessed: 03 mar. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v12i1.4811.
Section
Research Articles

References

1. Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Farah P, et al. CBTRUS statistical report: Primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2006-2010. Neuro-oncology 2013; 15 Suppl 2: ii1-56.
Doi: 10.1093/neuonc/not151.
2. Thakkar JP, Dolecek TA, Horbinski C, et al. Epidemiologic and molecular prognostic review of glioblastoma. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2014; 23: 1985-1996. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0275.
3. Korja M, Raj R, Seppa K, et al. Glioblastoma survival is improving despite increasing incidence rates: a nationwide study between 2000 and 2013 in Finland. Neuro-oncology 2019; 21: 370-379.
Doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noy164.
4. Miranda-Filho A, Pineros M, Soerjomataram I, et al. Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence. Neuro-oncology 2017; 19: 270-280. Doi: 1093/neuonc/now166.
5. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, et al. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. The New England journal of medicine 2005; 352: 987-996. Doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa043330.
6. Visser O, Ardanaz E, Botta L, et al. Survival of adults with primary malignant brain tumours in Europe; Results of the EUROCARE-5 study. European journal of cancer 2015; 51: 2231-2241. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.07.032.
7. Davis L. Spongioblastoma Multiforme of the Brain. Ann Surg 1928; 87: 8-14.
8. Pasquier B, Pasquier D, N'Golet A, et al. Extraneural metastases of astrocytomas and glioblastomas: clinicopathological study of two cases and review of literature. Cancer 1980; 45: 112-125.
9. Anzil AP. Glioblastoma multiforme with extracranial metastases in the absence of previous craniotomy. Case report. Journal of neurosurgery 1970; 33: 88-94. Doi: 10.3171/jns.1970.33.1.0088.
10. Anghileri E, Castiglione M, Nunziata R, et al. Extraneural metastases in glioblastoma patients: two cases with YKL-40-positive glioblastomas and a meta-analysis of the literature. Neurosurgical review 2016; 39: 37-45; discussion 45-36. Doi: 10.1007/s10143-015-0656-9.
11. Schweitzer T, Vince GH, Herbold C, et al. Extraneural metastases of primary brain tumors. Journal of neuro-oncology 2001; 53: 107-114. DOI: 10.1023/a:1012245115209.
12. Hoffman HJ and Duffner PK. Extraneural metastases of central nervous system tumors. Cancer 1985; 56: 1778-1782. DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(19851001)56:7+<1778::aid-cncr2820561309>3.0.co;2-i.
13. Figueroa P, Lupton JR, Remington T, et al. Cutaneous metastasis from an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2002; 46: 297-300. DOI: 10.1067/mjd.2002.104966.
14. Lun M, Lok E, Gautam S, et al. The natural history of extracranial metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of neuro-oncology 2011; 105: 261-273. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-011-0575-8.
15. Han SR, Yoon SW, Yee GT, et al. Extraneural metastases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia 2008; 15: 946-949.
Doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2006.09.013.
16. Piccirilli M, Brunetto GM, Rocchi G, et al. Extra central nervous system metastases from cerebral glioblastoma multiforme in elderly patients. Clinico-pathological remarks on our series of seven cases and critical review of the literature. Tumori 2008; 94: 40-51.
Doi: 10.1177/030089160809400109.
17. Romero-Rojas AE, Diaz-Perez JA, Amaro D, et al. Glioblastoma metastasis to parotid gland and neck lymph nodes: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histopathologic correlation. Head and neck pathology 2013; 7: 409-415. Doi: 10.1007/s12105-013-0448-x.
18. Huang P, Allam A, Taghian A, et al. Growth and metastatic behavior of five human glioblastomas compared with nine other histological types of human tumor xenografts in SCID mice. Journal of neurosurgery 1995; 83: 308-315. Doi: 10.3171/jns.1995.83.2.0308.
19. Zustovich F, Della Puppa A, Scienza R, et al. Metastatic oligodendrogliomas: a review of the literature and case report. Acta neurochirurgica 2008; 150: 699-702; discussion 702-693. DOI: 10.1007/s00701-008-1507-z.
20. Tuettenberg J, Grobholz R, Korn T, et al. Continuous low-dose chemotherapy plus inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 as an antiangiogenic therapy of glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology 2005; 131: 31-40. Doi: 10.1007/s00432-004-0620-5.
21. Taha M, Ahmad A, Wharton S, et al. Extra-cranial metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme presenting as acute parotitis. British journal of neurosurgery 2005; 19: 348-351. DOI: 10.1080/02688690500305506.
22. Kraft M, Lang F, Braunschweig R, et al. Parotid gland metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme: a case report and review of the literature. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies 2008; 265: 709-711. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-007-0499-2.
23. Frank S, Kuhn SA, Brodhun M, et al. Metastatic glioblastoma cells use common pathways via blood and lymphatic vessels. Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska 2009; 43: 183-190.
24. Mentrikoski M, Johnson MD, Korones DN, et al. Glioblastoma multiforme in skin: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. The American Journal of dermatopathology 2008; 30: 381-384. Doi: 10.1097/DAD.0b013e31817532c4.
25. Gururangan S, McLaughlin CA, Brashears J, et al. Incidence and patterns of neuraxis metastases in children with diffuse pontine glioma. Journal of neuro-oncology 2006; 77: 207-212. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-005-9029-5.
26. Nager GT. Gliomas involving the temporal bone clinical and pathological aspects. The Laryngoscope 1967; 77: 454-488.
Doi: 10.1288/lary.1967.000770403.
27. M T, Stephenson, Corinne, Y, Shan, Bui, Marilyn. Cytological Diagnosis of Extracranial Extension of Glioblastoma to Scalp. ASCP Case Reports 2013; 41: 13140. DOI: 2.1.3466.3041.
28. McGovern PC, Lautenbach E, Brennan PJ, et al. Risk factors for postcraniotomy surgical site infection after 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (Gliadel) wafer placement. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2003; 36: 759-765. Doi: 10.1086/368082.
29. Shi M and Sanche L. Convection-Enhanced Delivery in Malignant Gliomas: A Review of Toxicity and Efficacy. Journal of oncology 2019; 2019: 9342796.
Doi: 10.1155/2019/9342796.
30. Duffy PE, Graf L and Rapport MM. Identification of glial fibrillary acidic protein by the immunoperoxidase method in human brain tumors. Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 1977; 36: 645-652. Doi: 10.1097/00005072-197707000-00001.
31. Stoyanov GS, Petkova L, Iliev B, et al. Extracranial Glioblastoma Metastasis: A Neuropathological Case Report. Cureus 2023; 15: e35803. Doi: 10.7759/cureus.35803.
32. Ogungbo BI, Perry RH, Bozzino J, et al. Report of GBM metastasis to the parotid gland. Journal of neuro-oncology 2005; 74: 337-338. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-005-1480-9.
33. Alhoulaiby S, Abdulrahman A, Alouni G, et al. Extra-CNS metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme to cervical lymph nodes and parotid gland: A case report. Clinical case reports 2020; 8: 1672-1677. Doi: 10.1002/ccr3.2985.
34. Swinnen J, Gelin G, Fransis S, et al. Glioblastoma with extracranial parotid, lymph node, and pulmonary metastases: a case report. Radiology case reports 2019; 14: 1334-1347. Doi: 10.1016/j.radcr.2019.08.011.
35. Schwock J, Mirham L and Ghorab Z. Cytology of Extraneural Metastases of Nonhematolymphoid Primary Central Nervous System Tumors: Six Cases with Histopathological Correlation and Literature Update. Acta cytologica 2021; 65: 529-540. Doi: 10.1159/000517480.