The Use of Plasma Volume Calculations to Manage Acute Heart Failure: History, Current Status, and Future Directions

Main Article Content

Dennis G. Begos, MD, FACS


The use of calculated formulas for plasma volume based on hemoglobin and hematocrit (H&H) and other physiologic parameters is being increasingly used to gauge prognosis in patients with heart failure.


Many formulas exist, but they can be simplified into those which rely solely on H&H, and others which rely on H&H plus parameters such as weight and sex. The formulas that rely solely on H&H are the Strauss and Duarte formulas, while those which incorporate other parameters include the Hakim and Kaplan formulas.


There is now a large body of evidence that demonstrates these simple formulas can convey prognosis and may be valuable as a prospective measurement to guide therapy.


This review lays out the evidence for using plasma volume calculations in patients with heart failure and the benefits that can be derived from utilizing them in the management of heart failure.

Keywords: Plasma Volume Calculations, Acute Heart Failure, Heart Failure

Article Details

How to Cite
BEGOS, Dennis G.. The Use of Plasma Volume Calculations to Manage Acute Heart Failure: History, Current Status, and Future Directions. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 1, jan. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 03 mar. 2024. doi:
Research Articles


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