CT-navigated C2 Pedicle Screw insertion using dynamic reference array on C2 spinous process: A Novel Technique

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Vinay Hiralal Patel Dheeraj Batheja Aashish Ghodke Sujay Dheerendra, FRCS T&O Shashank Chitgopkar, FRCS T&O Jayesh Trivedi, FRCS T&O Sudarshan Munigangaiah, FRCS T&O


Introduction: Spine surgeons have endeavoured to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw insertion. Computed tomography (CT) guided navigation has been helpful in precisely passing pedicle screws even further accurately but, there were shortcomings noted with the technique due to movement between reference frame and anatomical landmarks, especially in the cervical spine which led to injury of vital neurovascular structures. Thus, there was a need for developing a technique which would eliminate the inherent error due to movement in the vertebral body while passing screws.

Research Question: Can using C2 spinous process as an attachment for the reference array improve accuracy of C2 pedicle screws.
Material and Methods: We prospectively studied data of 10 patients (20 screws) in whom Computed tomography navigated C2 pedicle screws insertion was carried out using the reference array on C2 spinous process. Accuracy of pedicle screws were confirmed by post instrumentation Computed tomography scan immediately intra operatively.

Results: With the presented technique overall breach rate was 5% with one screw having a medial breach of grade 1 with no incidence of neurovascular injury or need for further revision.

Discussion and Conclusion: Results from this study shows better accuracy than other techniques described to pass C2 pedicle screws eliminating the error in movement from the cervical vertebrae and the reference frame being nearest to the C2 pedicle. Although there is a learning curve with the adoption of the navigation system, with experience, the challenges associated with Cervical pedicle screws (CPS) insertion can be overcome.

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PATEL, Vinay Hiralal et al. CT-navigated C2 Pedicle Screw insertion using dynamic reference array on C2 spinous process: A Novel Technique. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 3, mar. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/5062>. Date accessed: 13 apr. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v12i3.5062.
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