Prevalence of dichotic deficits in adjudicated adolescents: Implications for language skills and competency within the juvenile justice system

Main Article Content

Deborah Moncrieff, Ph.D. Katherine Rehling Graham Mendez

Abstract

This study reports the prevalence of dichotic listening weaknesses in 10-18-year-old adjudicated adolescents and its potential impact on their language skills. The findings reveal that 35% of adjudicated adolescents exhibited matched dichotic deficit patterns sufficient to diagnose an APD, a prevalence rate that is higher than the 19% rate among age-matched typically developing children but lower than the 45% rate among age-matched children evaluated clinically for an auditory processing disorder (APD). These rates for all groups are significantly higher than the 2-7% prevalence rate commonly reported for APD in the pediatric population. The study also identified a link between low scores on dichotic listening tests and language deficits, suggesting potentially negative consequences for successful navigation through the juvenile justice system for these adolescents.


These results challenge the sustained underestimation of auditory processing risks in children and advocate for early identification and treatment of common processing deficits, emphasizing the need for consensus among researchers and clinicians in identifying and treating them. The implications of untreated auditory processing deficit on educational achievement, language skills, and behavior in adjudicated adolescents are discussed, emphasizing how they contribute to the schools-to-prison pipeline in the United States (U.S.). The study concludes by suggesting that early intervention through an evidence-based short-term auditory training protocol can improve dichotic listening and may alleviate some long-term educational underachievement and dysregulated behaviors associated with juvenile incarceration. The findings underscore the need for increased awareness, screening, and intervention for dichotic listening deficits in general and particularly in the at-risk, underserved pediatric populations world-wide.

Keywords: juvenile justice system, Implications for language skills and competency within the juvenile justice system, Prevalence of dichotic deficits in adjudicated adolescents

Article Details

How to Cite
MONCRIEFF, Deborah; MENDEZ, Katherine Rehling Graham. Prevalence of dichotic deficits in adjudicated adolescents: Implications for language skills and competency within the juvenile justice system. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 3, mar. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/5099>. Date accessed: 13 apr. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v12i3.5099.
Section
Research Articles

References

1. Agnew SE, Powell MB, Snow PC. An examination of the questioning styles of police officers and caregivers when interviewing children with intellectual disabilities. Legal and Criminological Psychology. 2006;11(1):35–53. doi:10.1348/1 35532505X68494.

2. Ahmmed AU, Ahmmed AA. Setting appropriate pass or fail cut-off criteria for tests to reflect real-life listening difficulties in children with suspected auditory processing disorder. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016; 84:166–173. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.03.014.

3. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Spoken Language Disorders. (Practice Portal). Accessed September 8, 2021. www.Practice-Portal/Clinical-Topics/Spoken-Language-Disorders

4. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Written Language Disorders. (Practice Portal). Accessed September 8, 2021. www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Clinical-Topics/Written-Language-Disorders/

5. American Academy of Audiology (AAA). Practice guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of children and adults with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). http://www.audiology.org/publications-resources/document-library/central-auditory-processing-disorder . Published 2010

6. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (Central) auditory processing disorders [Technical Report]. www.asha.org/policy. ASHA; 2005. ASHA, 2003.

7. Berken JA, Miller E, Moncrieff D. Auditory processing disorders in incarcerated youth: A call for early detection and treatment. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;128:109683. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109683.

8. Blanton DJ, Dagenais PA. Comparison of language skills of adjudicated and nonadjudicated adolescent males and females. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2007; 38:309–314.

9. Blomberg TG, Bales WD, Mann K, Piquero AR, Berk RA. Incarceration, education, and transition from delinquency. J Crim Justice. 2011;39:355–365.

10. Bryan K, Freer J, Furlong C. Language and communication difficulties in juvenile offenders. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2007;42(5):505–520. doi:10.1080/13682820601053977.

11. Cacace AT, McFarland DJ. Central auditory processing disorder in school-aged children: A critical review. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1998;41(2):355–373. doi:10.1044/jslhr.41 02.355.

12. Cacace AT, McFarland DJ. The importance of modality specificity in diagnosing central auditory processing disorder. Am J Audiol. 2005;14(2):112–123. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2005/012).

13. Cavendish W. Academic attainment during commitment and post-release education-related outcomes of juvenile justice-involved youth with and without disabilities. J Educ Behav Disord. 2014;22:41–52.

14. Cuellar AE, Markowitz S. School suspension and the schools-to-prison pipeline. Int Rev Law Econ. 2015;43:98–106.

15. Connors CK, Kramer K, Guerra F. Auditory synthesis and dichotic listening in children with learning disabilities. J Spec Educ. 1969;3(2):163–170.

16. Crawford D. ACLD-R & D project summary: A study investigating the link between learning disabilities and juvenile delinquency. In: Cruickshank WM, Kliebhan JM, eds. Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press; 1984. p. 13–71.

17. Davis AD, Sanger DD, Morris-Friehe M. Language skills of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescent males. J Commun Disord. 1991;24:251–266.

18. DeBonis DA, Moncrieff D. Auditory processing disorders: An update for speech-language pathologists. Am J Speech-Lang Pathol. 2008;17(1):4-18. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2008/002).

19. Dusky v. United States, 362 U.S. 402, 402 (1960).

20. Emanuel DC, Ficca KN, Korczak P. Survey of the diagnosis and management of auditory processing disorder. Am J Audiol. 2011;20:48–60.

21. Ford JD, Chapman JF, Hawke J, Albert D. Trauma Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: Critical Issues and New Directions. National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice. Accessed December 2, 2022. https://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/BTB25-1G-02.pdf. Published 2007.

22. Grosse SD. Education cost savings from early detection of hearing loss: New findings. Volta Voices. 2007;14(6):38-40.

23. Hancock A, Northcott S, Hobson H, Clarke M. Speech, language and communication needs and mental health: The experiences of speech and language therapists and mental health professionals. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2023;58(1):52–66. doi:10.1111/1460-6984.12767.

24. Hawkins JD, Lishner DM, Johnson EH. Handbook on crime and delinquency prevention. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press; 1987.

25. Hemez P, Brent JJ, Mowen TJ. Exploring the school-to-prison pipeline: How school suspensions influence incarceration during young adulthood. Youth Violence Juv Justice. 2020;18(3):235-255. doi:10.1177/1541204019880945.

26. Hinshaw SP. Academic underachievement, attention deficits, and aggression: Comorbidity and implications for intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992;60: 893–903.

27. Hirschi T, Hindelang MJ. Intelligence and delinquency: A revisionist review. Am Sociol Rev. 1977;42:571–587.

28. Kincaid AP, Sullivan AL. Parity or disparity? Outcomes of court-involved youth with and without disabilities. Remedial Spec Educ. 2020;41(6):368-377. doi:10.1177/0741 932519887502.

29. Kingsbury S, Khvalabov N, Stirn J, et al. Barriers to Equity in Pediatric Hearing Health Care: A Review of the Evidence. Perspect ASHA SIGs. 2022;7(4):1060-1071. doi:10.104 4/2021_persp-21-00188.

30. Kral A, Kronenberger WG, Pisoni DB, O'Donoghue GM. Neurocognitive factors in sensory restoration of early deafness: A connectome model. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(6):610-621. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422 (16)00034-X.

31. Krezmien MP, Mulcahy CA, Leone PE. Detained and committed youth: Examining differences in achievement, mental health needs, and special education status. Educ Treat Child. 2008;31(4):445-464.

32. LaVigne M, Van Rybroek G. Breakdown in the language zone: The prevalence of language impairments among juvenile and adult offenders and why it matters. 15 U.C. Davis J. Juv. L. & Policy 37. 2011.

33. Lee SY, Villagrana M. Differences in risk and protective factors between crossover and non-crossover youth in juvenile justice. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2015;58:18–27. doi:10.1016/j .childyouth.2015.09.001.

34. Lieu JEC, Kenna M, Anne S, Davidson L. Hearing Loss in Children: A Review. JAMA. 2020;324(21):2195-2205. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.17647.

35. Litovsky R. Development of the auditory system. Handbook Clin Neurol. 2015;129:55-72. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-62630-1.00003-2. PMID: 25726262; PMCID: PMC4612629.

36. Mattsson T, Follestad T, Andersson S, Lind O, Oygarden J, Nordgard S. Normative data for diagnosing auditory processing disorder in Norwegian children aged 7–12 years. Int J Audiol. 2017;57:1-11. doi:10.1080 /14992027.2017.1366670.

37. McFarland DJ, Cacace AT. Current controversies in CAPD: From Procrustes’ bed to Pandora’s box. In: Parthasarathy TK, ed. An Introduction to Auditory Processing Disorders in Children. Erlbaum; 2006:247–263.

38. Moeller MP, Tomblin JB, Yoshinaga-Itano C, Connor CM, Jerger S. Current state of knowledge: Language and literacy of children with hearing impairment. Ear Hear. 2007;28(6) :740-753. doi:10.1097/AUD.0b013e318157f07f.

39. Mohr P, Feldman J, Dunbar J, McConkey-Robbins A, Niparko J, Rittenhouse R, Skinner M. The societal costs of severe to profound hearing loss in the United States. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2000;16(04):1120-1135. doi:10.1017/S0266462300103162.

40. Moncrieff D. Age- and gender-specific normative information from children assessed with a dichotic words test. J Am Acad Audiol. 2015;26(7):632-644. doi:10.3766/jaaa.14096.

41. Moncrieff D. Amblyaudia and Speech-in-Noise Difficulties: Mother and Son or Kissing Cousins? Presentation at the American Academy of Audiology annual convention, Nashville, TN; April 2018.

42. Moncrieff D, Keith W, Abramson M, Swann A. Diagnosis of amblyaudia in children referred for auditory processing assessment. Int J Audiol. 2016;55(6):333-345. doi:10.3109 /14992027.2015.1128003.

43. Moncrieff D, Keith W, Abramson M, Swann A. Evidence of binaural integration benefits following ARIA training for children and adolescents diagnosed with amblyaudia. Int J Audiol. 2017;56(8):580-588. doi:10.1080 /14992027.2017.1303199.

44. Moncrieff D, Miller E, Hill E. Screening Tests Reveal High Risk Among Adjudicated Adolescents of Auditory Processing and Language Disorders. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2018;61(4):924-935. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-H-17-0098.

45. Moncrieff DW, Wertz D. Auditory rehabilitation for interaural asymmetry: Preliminary evidence of improved dichotic listening performance following intensive training. Int J Audiol. 2008;47(2):84-97. doi:10 .1080/14992020701770835.

46. Moncrieff DW, Wilson RH. Recognition of randomly presented one-, two-, and three-pair dichotic digits by children and young adults. J Am Acad Audiol. 2009;20(1):58-70. doi:10.3766/jaaa.20.1.6.

47. Nagao K, Riegner T, Padilla J, Greenwood LA, Loson J, Zavala S, Morlet T. Prevalence of Auditory Processing Disorder in School-Aged Children in the Mid-Atlantic Region. J Am Acad Audiol. 2016;27(9):691-700. doi:10.3766/jaaa.15020.

48. Obrzut JE, Mahoney EB. Use of the dichotic listening technique with learning disabilities. Brain Cogn. 2011;76(2):323-331. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2011.02.012.

49. Paul R, Norbury C, Gosse C. Language disorders from infancy through adolescence. 5th ed. Mosby; 2017.

50. Pettit B, Western B. Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration. Am Sociol Rev. 2004;69( 2):151-169. doi:10.1177/000312240406900201.

51. Pinheiro FH, Oliveira AM, Cardoso AC, Capellini SA. Dichotic listening tests in students with learning disabilities. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76(2):257-262. doi:10 .1590/S1808-86942010000200018.

52. Puzzanchera C. Trends in Youth Arrests for Violent Crimes. Juvenile Justice Statistics, National Report Series Fact Sheet. Available: ojjdp.ojp.gov/publications/trends-in-youth-arrests.pdf; 2022.

53. Puzzanchera C, Hockenberry S, Sladky TJ, Kang W. Juvenile Residential Facility Census Databook. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/jrfcdb/; 2022.

54. Reynard P, Joly CA, Damien M, Le Normand MT, Veuillet E, Thai-Van H. Age-Related Dichotic Listening Skills in Impaired and Non-Impaired Readers: A Comparative Study. J Clin Med. 2023;12(2):666. doi:10.339 0/jcm12020666.

55. Riddle T, Sinclair S. Racial disparities in school-based disciplinary actions are associated with county-level rates of racial bias. PNAS. 2019;116(17):8255–8260. doi:10. 1073/pnas.1808307116.

56. Rovner. Black disparities in youth incarceration, the sentencing project. Downloaded from https://www.sentencingproject.org/app/uploads/2023/12/Black-Disparities-in-Youth-Incarceration.pdf; 2021.

57. Rutter M, Giller H. Juvenile delinquency: Trends and perspectives. Guilford; 1983.

58. Sanger D, Moore-Brown B, Magnuson G, Svoboda N. Prevalence of language problems among adolescent delinquents: A closer look. Commun Disord Q. 2001;23:17–26.

59. Sedlak AJ, Bruce C. Youth's characteristics and backgrounds: Findings from the survey of youth in residential placement. Available: https://ojjdp.ojp.gov/library/publications/youths-characteristics-and-backgrounds-findings-survey-youth-residential; 2010

60. Sekhar DL, Zalewski TR, Paul IM. Variability of state school-based hearing screening protocols in the United States. J Community Health. 2013;38(3):569-574. doi:10.1007/s10900-013-9652-6. Erratum in: J Community Health. 2016 Aug;41(4):895.

61. Semel E, Wiig EH, Secord WA. Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Fourth Edition. Pearson; 2003.

62. Shaikh MA, Fox-Thomas L, Tucker D. Impact of Different Cutoff Criteria on Rate of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Diagnosis Using the Central Test Battery. Audiol Res. 2016;6(2):158. doi:10.4081/audio res.2016.158. PMID: 27942373; PMCID: PMC5134675.

63. Sickmund M, Puzzanchera C. Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement: 1997-2017. In: The Children’s Defense Fund, State of America’s Children. https://www.childrensdefense.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/The-State-Of-Americas-Children-2020.pdf; 2019.

64. Snow PC, Powell MB. What's the story? An exploration of narrative language abilities in male juvenile offenders. Psychol Crime Law. 2005;11(3):239–253.

65. Snow PC, Powell MB. Oral Language Competence, Social Skills and High-risk Boys: What are Juvenile Offenders Trying to Tell us? Children & Society. 2008;22:16-28. doi:10.11 11/j.1099-0860.2006.00076.x.

66. Snow P, Powell M. Youth (in)justice: Oral language competence in early life and risk for engagement in antisocial behaviour in adolescence. Trends Issues Crime Criminal Justice. 2012;2012(435):1-6.

67. Snyder, deBrey, & Dillow. 2016 National Center of Educational Statistics, 52nd Edition, 2016. National Center for Education Statistics (ED); American Institutes for Research (AIR). http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017094.

68. Sprott J, Myers N. Set up to fail: The unintended consequences of multiple mail conditions. Can J Criminol Crim Justice. 2011;53(4):404-423.

69. Stattin H, Klackenberg-Larsson I. Early language and intelligence development and their relationship to future criminal behavior. J Abnorm Psychol. 1993;102:369–378.

70. Strouse A, Wilson RH. Recognition of one-, two-, and three-pair dichotic digits under free and directed recall. J Am Acad Audiol. 1999;10(10):557-571.

71. USDOJ, ojjdp.ojp.gov.

72. Strouse A, Wilson RH. Stimulus length uncertainty with dichotic digit recognition. J Am Acad Audiol. 1999;10(4):219-229. PMID: 10941713.

73. Studebaker GA. “A rationalized” arcsine transform. J Speech Hear Res. 1985;28:455–462. doi:10.1044/jshr.2803.455.

74. Tomlin D, Dillon H, Kelly AS. Allowing for asymmetric distributions when comparing auditory processing test percentage scores with normative data. J Am Acad Audiol. 2014;25(6):541-548. doi:10.3766/jaaa.25.6.4. PMID: 25313544.

75. United States v. Mosquera, 816 F. Supp. 168 (E.D.N.Y. 1993).

76. Vermiglio AJ. On Diagnostic Accuracy in Audiology: Central Site of Lesion and Central Auditory Processing Disorder Studies. J Am Acad Audiol. 2016;27(2):141-156. doi:10.376 6/jaaa.15079. Erratum in: J Am Acad Audiol. 2018 Jan;29(1):90. PMID: 26905533.

77. Wald J, Losen DJ. Defining and redirecting a school-to-prison pipeline. New Dir Youth Dev. 2003;99:9–15.

78. Walker, Herting, et al. The impact of pretrial juvenile detention on 12-month recidivism: a matched comparison study. In: Crime Delinquency. 2020.

79. Wiig EH, Secord WA, Semel E. Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals– Fifth Edition. San Antonio, TX: Pearson; 2013.

80. Wilson WJ, Arnott W. Using different criteria to diagnose (central) auditory processing disorder: how big a difference does it make? J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2013;56(1):63-70. doi:10.1044/1092- 4388(20 12/11-0352). Epub 2012 Jul 3. PMID: 22761321