Design and Validation of an integrated Objective Structured Clinical Examination (i-OSCE) for a non-surgical aesthetics postgraduate program.

Main Article Content

Narendra Kumar Ali Parsa


Introduction: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a popular and practical method for evaluating future clinicians’ competence and suitability for independent clinical practice. The present study aimed to develop and validate an integrated objective structured clinical examination to assess aesthetic physicians’ critical thinking and clinical competency.

Methods: Initially, an expert panel consisting of five Aesthetic Practitioners with over 15 years of experience and a senior clinical academic were invited to develop a blueprint for the integrated objective structured clinical examination. Through this blueprint, the essential qualities and skills were identified for assessment. In addition, training workshops for examiners and simulated patients were organized to ensure process standardization. The final integrated objective structured clinical examination consisted of 12 stations (four clinical, four critical thinking, and four rest stations lasting 180 min).

Results: The Interclass correlation coefficient between the station checklist items was 0.946 (average upper bound 0.916, lower bound 0.968; p<0.00), which was considered significant. The Inter-Item Correlation Matrix among the clinical station and critical thinking checklist items also showed statistical significance. The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) was used to ascertain the correlation between the checklist and global ratings, yielding a high correlation (0.80 0.934).

Conclusion: The integrated objective structured clinical examination is a valuable and reliable tool for assessing trainees’ aesthetic physicians’ clinical competence and critical thinking.

Keywords: OSCE, Non-Surgical Aesthetics, Clinical Examination, Critical Thinking, Clinical Reasoning.

Article Details

How to Cite
KUMAR, Narendra; PARSA, Ali. Design and Validation of an integrated Objective Structured Clinical Examination (i-OSCE) for a non-surgical aesthetics postgraduate program.. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 3, mar. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 16 apr. 2024. doi:
Research Articles


1. Onwudiegwu U. OSCE: DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT. J West African Coll Surg. 2018;8(1):1-22.

2. Tabish SA. Assessment methods in medical education. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2008;2(2):3-7.

3. Khan KZ, Gaunt K, Ramachandran S, Pushkar P. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): AMEE Guide No. 81. Part II: Organisation & Administration. Med Teach. 2013;35(9):e1447-e1463. doi:10. 3109/0142159X.2013.818635

4. Tey C, Chiavaroli N, Ryan A. Perceived educational impact of the medical student long case: a qualitative study. BMC Med Educ. 2020;20(1):257. doi:10.1186/s12909-02 0-02182-6

5. Pell G, Roberts TE. Setting standards for student assessment. Int J Res Method Educ. 2006;29(1):91-103. doi:10.1080/01406720500537486

6. Al-Hashimi K, Said UN, Khan TN. Formative Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) as an Assessment Tool in UK Undergraduate Medical Education: A Review of Its Utility. Cureus. 2023;15(5):e3851 9. doi:10.7759/cureus.38519

7. Kumar N, Bhardwaj S, Rahman E. Multiple mini-interview as a predictor of performance in the objective structured clinical examination among Physician Associates in the United Kingdom : a cohort study. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2018;9:239-245. doi :

8. Marwaha S. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), psychiatry and the Clinical assessment of Skills and Competencies (CASC)Same Evidence, Different Judgement. BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11(1):85. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-11-85

9. Nguyen K, Ben Khallouq B, Schuster A, et al. Developing a tool for observing group critical thinking skills in first-year medical students: a pilot study using physiology-based, high-fidelity patient simulations. Adv Physiol Educ. 2017;41(4):604-611. doi:10.11 52/advan.00126.2017

10. Majumder MAA, Sa B, Alateeq FA, Rahman S. Teaching and Assessing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills in Medical Education. In: ; 2019:213-233. doi:10. 4018/978-1-5225-7829-1.ch012

11. West DC, Pomeroy JR, Park JK, Gerstenberger EA, Sandoval J. Critical Thinking in Graduate Medical Education. JAMA. 2000;284(9):1105. doi:10.1001/jama. 284.9.1105

12. Maudsley G, Strivens J. Promoting professional knowledge, experiential learning and critical thinking for medical students. Med Educ. 2000;34(7):535-544. doi:10.1046/j.136 5-2923.2000.00632.x

13. Al-Osail AM, Al-Sheikh MH, Al-Osail EM, et al. Is Cronbach’s alpha sufficient for assessing the reliability of the OSCE for an internal medicine course? BMC Res Notes. 2015;8(1):582. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1533-x

14. Zayyan M. Objective Structured Clinical Examination: The Assessment of Choice. Oman Med J. 2011;26(4):219-222. doi:10.500 1/omj.2011.55

15. Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med. 1990;65(9):S63-7. doi:10.1097/00001888-199 009000-00045

16. Sousa AC, Wagner DP, Henry RC, Mavis BE. Better data for teachers, better data for learners, better patient care: college-wide assessment at Michigan State University’s College of Human Medicine. Med Educ Online. 2011;16(1):5926. doi:10.3402/meo.v 16i0.5926

17. Nematbakhsh M, Sharif S-M, Athari Z-S, Nasr A. Assessing critical thinking in medical sciences students in two sequential semesters: Does it improve? J Educ Health Promot. 2013;2(1):5. doi:10.4103/2277-9531. 106644

18. Royce CS, Hayes MM, Schwartzstein RM. Teaching Critical Thinking: A Case for Instruction in Cognitive Biases to Reduce Diagnostic Errors and Improve Patient Safety. Acad Med. 2019;94(2):187-194. doi:10.1097/ ACM.0000000000002518

19. Kumar N, Parsa AD, Rahman E. A Core Curriculum for Postgraduate Program in Non-Surgical Aesthetics: A Cross-sectional Delphi Study. Aesthetic Surg J Open Forum. 2022;4. doi:10.1093/asjof/ojac023

20. Krusen NE, Rollins D. Design of an OSCE to Assess Clinical Competence of Occupational Therapy Students. J Occup Ther Educ. 2019;3(1). doi:10.26681/jote. 2019.030111

21. Swanson DB, Stillman PL. Use of Standardized Patients for Teaching And Assessing Clinical Skills. Eval Health Prof. 1990;13(1):79-103. doi:10.1177/016327879001300105

22. Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 1951;16(3):297-334. doi:10.1007/BF02310555

23. Streiner DL. Starting at the Beginning: An Introduction to Coefficient Alpha and Internal Consistency. J Pers Assess. 2003;80(1):99-103. doi:10.1207/S15327752JPA8001_18

24. Graham JM. Congeneric and (Essentially) Tau-Equivalent Estimates of Score Reliability. Educ Psychol Meas. 2006;66(6):930-944. doi:10.1177/0013164406288165