Promoting eCo-responsibility, eCo-literacy, and eCo-centricity in emergency triAge Regarding climate changE consequences (I-CARE THE 3 Cs): study protocol

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Omar Portela Dos Santos Henk Verlo Paulo Jorge Pereira Alves


Background: Climate change, ambient air pollution, and non-optimal temperatures are recognized as a global health emergency. Many studies have highlighted increases in the number of emergency hospital admissions and hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with non-optimal temperatures, unconventional gas reserves, particulate matter, grounded level O3, sulphur dioxide, or nitrogen dioxide exposure.

Problem statement: According to the Swiss Health Observatory, 14% of the Swiss population used a hospital emergency department (ED) at least once in 2016, representing 1,7 million admissions or 4,718 admissions per day. In the face of evolving climate-associated reasons for presenting at the ED, the scales used for emergency triage are now proving insufficient for their task. It is becoming critical to introduce and implement more appropriate ED triage tools that incorporate risk factors such as ambient temperature and air pollution. It will also require raising nurses’ eco-literacy, eco-responsibility, and eco-centricity, which are currently rated as moderate to low, to ensure adaptation and/or mitigation in the face of this global threat.

Future directions and perspectives for the nursing discipline: The nursing discipline must develop its eco-literacy, eco-responsibility, and eco-centricity to take social and professional responsibility for addressing the health-related impacts of climate change. To do so, the research project’s overall aim, which will be achieved in five stages, is to develop, pilot-test, and evaluate the feasibility of a complex nursing intervention named “Education Intervention promoting eCo-literacy, eCo-responsibility, and eCo-centricity in emergency triAge Regarding climate changE consequences (I-CARE the 3 Cs). The I-CARE the 3 Cs intervention aims to provide an adequate, effective, efficient, fair, safe, and patient-centered response to patients’ and nurses’ needs and to develop guidelines for dealing with the health consequences of climate change.

Keywords: Health Literacy, Change, Global Warming, Education, Nurses, Complex Intervention

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How to Cite
SANTOS, Omar Portela Dos; VERLO, Henk; ALVES, Paulo Jorge Pereira. Promoting eCo-responsibility, eCo-literacy, and eCo-centricity in emergency triAge Regarding climate changE consequences (I-CARE THE 3 Cs): study protocol. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 3, mar. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 apr. 2024. doi:
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