Maternal and Newborn Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and Pregnancy: Parallels and Contrasts with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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Dan Li Jing Zhang Xiaofen Zhang Yifan Chang Sten H. Vermund


Purpose of Review. Our review aims to compare and contrast Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19's impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We have made significant progress in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome prevention and treatment over the last few decades. Drawing on empirical evidence with past public health crises can offer valuable insights into dealing with current and future pandemics. Therefore, it is imperative to conduct a comparative analysis of the resemblances and disparities existing between Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19.This research endeavor represents a pioneering and all-encompassing examination, aiming to discern and comprehend the parallels and contrasts in the respective impacts of SARS-CoV-2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus on pregnancy.

Recent Findings. Based on the current evidence, there is no indication that pregnancy increases women's susceptibility to acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus or SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, the state of being pregnant was correlated with the worsening of diseases and their progression. Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus and SARS-CoV-2 pose increased risks of maternal mortality and several obstetric complications, including premature birth and pre-eclampsia. While the vertical transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus is well-established, a comprehensive understanding of the vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive, emphasizing the need for further investigations. Initial data suggest low SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission rates in the setting of proper preventative interventions and universal screening. A cesarean delivery could reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected women with high viral loads or poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, it did not offer additional protection for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected women who adhered to Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy or those with COVID-19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and SARS-CoV-2 were linked to neonatal complications such as stillbirth, low birth weight, and neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. The universal testing of both pregnant patients and neonates is an effective strategy to prevent the spread and complications of both Human Immunodeficiency Virus and SARS-CoV-2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus control largely relies on preventing vertical transmission and medications during pregnancy and postpartum, whereas safety behaviors and vaccines have proven effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmissions.

Summary. This review aims to compare and contrast the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and SARS-CoV-2 on pregnancy outcomes, vertical transmissions, delivery modalities, neonatal outcomes, and clinical management. SARS-CoV-2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus were associated with significant obstetric-related complications, making close clinical monitoring and preparation essential. Integration of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 management with reproductive health services is crucial to ensuring maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our review is not only the first to establish a groundwork for the current state of knowledge and its clinical implications on this topic, but it also sheds new insights for future research directions.

Comparing Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 in terms of their impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes provides valuable insights despite their differences. Leveraging Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome research can help understand SARS-CoV-2 effects on pregnancy. Both infections pose risks to pregnant individuals and their fetuses, leading to increased maternal mortality and complications. Identifying common patterns and risk factors can improve clinical management for pregnant individuals with SARS-CoV-2. While a direct observational study for this comparison may not be feasible, comparing with Human Immunodeficiency Virus offers an ethical and practical approach. However, specific studies on SARS-CoV-2 are still necessary to gather detailed data on maternal and fetal outcomes.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, HIV/AIDS, Pregnancy, Maternal Outcomes, Newborn Outcomes, Vertical Transmissions, Breastfeeding, Vaccine, Pandemic, Infectious Disease

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How to Cite
LI, Dan et al. Maternal and Newborn Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and Pregnancy: Parallels and Contrasts with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 4, apr. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 may 2024. doi:
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