Implications of Untreated Hypertension on Chronic Kidney Disease: A Literature Review

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Mustafa Abrar Zaman Kuragamage Dona Prabuddhi Thiloka Kuraga Aseel Aljeshi Aiza Kashif Jessarij Chinthamraks Hussien Abouzeid Riddhi Singh Adyan Irshad Ahmed Rayan Rezaei Tonmoy Sarker Maaz Kashif Shaan Patker Saif Bunni Jyothsnaa Sathish Simone Talreja Datta Venkata Daivik Pentapati Adhved Rajesh Krishnan Yash Mahendra Mhase

Abstract

The untreated progression of hypertension holds significant implications for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, necessitating the implementation of strategic hypertension management measures to mitigate its impact on chronic kidney disease. This review highlights the necessity of precise diagnostic methodologies that employ oscillometric equipment and advocates for pharmacological interventions, the incorporation of combination therapies such as the "Polypill" to effectively control hypertension, and lifestyle adjustments. The pivotal role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in hypertension is acknowledged, noting the importance of stringent blood pressure regulation and the utilization of RAAS-blocking agents to attenuate its association with chronic kidney disease. A comprehensive analysis is provided on the effects of various classes of antihypertensive medications on renal function, encompassing diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Additionally, both non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities for managing resistant hypertension in CKD patients are examined, alongside discussions on prognostic indicators and outcomes across different stages of chronic kidney disease. Lifestyle modifications such as sodium restriction, weight management, and moderation of alcohol intake are assessed for their influence on chronic kidney disease prognosis. The review also extensively delves into the impact of ethnicity on the prevalence and outcomes of hypertension-induced CKD, highlighting disparities and distinctive trends among diverse ethnic cohorts including Indian, African American, Middle Eastern, Chinese, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Hispanic populations. Additionally, this study addresses the intricate relationship between cardiovascular abnormalities and CKD, the significance of gastrointestinal disorders, and the importance of multidisciplinary approaches in CKD management. Furthermore, insights are provided into the significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a biomarker for identifying renal injury and chronic kidney disease progression alongside factors influencing adverse prognosis and life expectancy in CKD patients. This study accentuates the importance of tailored treatment assessments and interventions to address varied patterns and obstacles within ethnic groups, aiming to optimize chronic kidney disease management strategies and reduce health disparities.

Keywords: Hypertension, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerosis, renal failure, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, kidney disease markers, proteinuria, end-stage renal disease

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How to Cite
ZAMAN, Mustafa Abrar et al. Implications of Untreated Hypertension on Chronic Kidney Disease: A Literature Review. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 4, apr. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/5214>. Date accessed: 27 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v12i4.5214.
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Review Articles

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