A Framework for Innovation in Obesity

Main Article Content

James A Levine, MD, PhD


The intersection of innovation and obesity presents a significant opportunity for businesses to address a pressing public health challenge while capitalizing on a growing market demand. This abstract explores the potential for businesses, both existing and new, to innovate within sectors such as food, healthcare, technology, and education to promote healthier lifestyles and combat obesity. With the obesity market estimated at $80 billion annually, entrepreneurs, healthcare providers, and technology developers have ample room for growth and innovation. Existing businesses can reformulate products, offer new services, and advocate for supportive policies, while new ventures can enter the market with innovative solutions targeting obesity-related services and products. Moreover, the DACMAR (Disrupt, Adopt, Collaborate, Manage, Adapt, and Resource) framework provides a structured approach for innovators to navigate the complexities of obesity management. Through the DACMAR framework, stakeholders can drive meaningful progress and innovation in addressing obesity. This framework emphasizes the importance of challenging the status quo, fostering partnerships, effective resource management, and dynamic adaptation to changing circumstances. Similarly, by applying the DACMAR framework's principles, investors can systematically rank different innovations in the obesity domain, ensuring market-readiness, identify go-to-market gaps and align investments with investors’ strategic objectives. This enables objective de-risking to improve investment returns. Furthermore, effective leadership is crucial in driving innovation and change, particularly in complex issues like obesity. Various leadership styles, including transformational, innovative, collaborative, servant, adaptive, and strategic, play essential roles in shaping the direction and impact of obesity prevention and treatment efforts. By leveraging diverse leadership approaches, stakeholders can work together to develop innovative solutions that improve outcomes for individuals and communities affected by obesity.

Keywords: obesity, innovation, leadership, business

Article Details

How to Cite
LEVINE, James A. A Framework for Innovation in Obesity. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 4, apr. 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/5300>. Date accessed: 27 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v12i4.5300.
Research Articles


1. World_Health_Organization. Health service delivery framework for prevention and management of obesity. 2023. 2023. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240073234
2. James WP. Epidemiology of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16 Suppl 2:S23-6.
3. Saw SM, Rajan U. The epidemiology of obesity: a review. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1997;26(4):489-93.
4. Dutta S, Lanvin B, Wunsch-Vincent S. Global innovation index 2018 : energizing the world with innovation. 11th ed. Cornell University; 2018.
5. Merriam-Webster. Innovation. Merriam-Webster. Accessed Jan 23, 2024. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/innovation.
6. Delehant S, Hatton JR, Sudhalkar H, Scruth EA. Social Determinants of Health: An Ethical Approach. Clin Nurse Spec. Mar-Apr 01 2024;38(2):65-68. doi:10.1097/nur.0000000000000806
7. Coggon J, Adams J. 'Let them choose not to eat cake...': Public health ethics, effectiveness and equity in government obesity strategy. Future Healthc J. Mar 2021;8(1):49-52. doi:10.7861/fhj.2020-0246
8. Colbert A, Kalarchian M. Obesity, ethics, and healthcare: A patient-centered approach. Nursing. Jul 2019;49(7):20-22. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000559929.22685.a5
9. Sawyer RK. Explaining Creativity : The Science of Human Innovation. Oxford University Press, USA; 2011.
10. Globaldata.com. Obesity Market Size, Drug Analysis, Epidemiology, Disease Management, Pipeline Assessment, Unmet Needs and Forecast to 2031. Accessed Feb 19, 2024. https://www.globaldata.com/store/report/obesity-market-analysis/
11. Haverkamp K, Newberry P, Baker J. Impact of a pharmacist-run weight loss medication management service. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). May-Jun 2022;62(3):883-888. doi:10.1016/j.japh.2021.11.022
12. Cawley J, Biener A, Meyerhoefer C, et al. Direct medical costs of obesity in the United States and the most populous states. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. Mar 2021;27(3):354-366. doi:10.18553/jmcp.2021.20410
13. Lan Q, Liu C, Ling S. Research on Measurement of Symbiosis Degree Between National Fitness and the Sports Industry from the Perspective of Collaborative Development. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Jun 21 2019;16(12)doi:10.3390/ijerph16122191
14. Yach D. Food industry: friend or foe? Obes Rev. Jan 2014;15(1):2-5. doi:10.1111/obr.12125
15. Kucharczuk AJ, Oliver TL, Dowdell EB. Social media's influence on adolescents' food choices: A mixed studies systematic literature review. Appetite. Jan 1 2022;168:105765. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2021.105765
16. Dulloo AG, Montani JP. Pathways from dieting to weight regain, to obesity and to the metabolic syndrome: an overview. Obes Rev. Feb 2015;16 Suppl 1:1-6. doi:10.1111/obr.12250
17. Zhou M, Rincón-Gallardo Patiño S, Hedrick VE, Kraak VI. An accountability evaluation for the responsible use of celebrity endorsement by the food and beverage industry to promote healthy food environments for young Americans: A narrative review to inform obesity prevention policy. Obes Rev. Dec 2020;21(12):e13094. doi:10.1111/obr.13094
18. Dobbie LJ, Tahrani A, Alam U, James J, Wilding J, Cuthbertson DJ. Exercise in Obesity-the Role of Technology in Health Services: Can This Approach Work? Curr Obes Rep. Sep 2022;11(3):93-106. doi:10.1007/s13679-021-00461-x
19. Williams A, Turer C, Smith J, et al. Adoption of an Electronic Medical Record Tool for Childhood Obesity by Primary Care Providers. Appl Clin Inform. Mar 2020;11(2):210-217. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1705106
20. Gilmore LA, Duhé AF, Frost EA, Redman LM. The technology boom: a new era in obesity management. J Diabetes Sci Technol. May 2014;8(3):596-608. doi:10.1177/1932296814525189
21. Raaijmakers LC, Pouwels S, Berghuis KA, Nienhuijs SW. Technology-based interventions in the treatment of overweight and obesity: A systematic review. Appetite. Dec 2015;95:138-51. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2015.07.008
22. Hughes S, Dietz WH, Gallagher C. Coverage for obesity prevention and treatment: analysis of state employee health plans and use of benefits. Obesity (Silver Spring). Aug 2022;30(8):1573-1578. doi:10.1002/oby.23468
23. Jannah N, Hild J, Gallagher C, Dietz W. Coverage for Obesity Prevention and Treatment Services: Analysis of Medicaid and State Employee Health Insurance Programs. Obesity (Silver Spring). Dec 2018;26(12):1834-1840. doi:10.1002/oby.22307
24. McCurley JL, Buckholtz JW, Roberto CA, et al. The association of impulsivity with effects of the ChooseWell 365 workplace nudge intervention on diet and weight. Transl Behav Med. May 13 2023;13(5):281-288. doi:10.1093/tbm/ibac103
25. Perdomo CM, Cohen RV, Sumithran P, Clément K, Frühbeck G. Contemporary medical, device, and surgical therapies for obesity in adults. Lancet. Apr 1 2023;401(10382):1116-1130. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(22)02403-5
26. Knop FK, Aroda VR, do Vale RD, et al. Oral semaglutide 50 mg taken once per day in adults with overweight or obesity (OASIS 1): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. Aug 26 2023;402(10403):705-719. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(23)01185-6
27. Ahmed P, Shepherd C. Innovation management. First edition. ed. Pearson Education UK; 2012.
28. Monteiro CA, Cannon G, Moubarac JC, Levy RB, Louzada MLC, Jaime PC. The UN Decade of Nutrition, the NOVA food classification and the trouble with ultra-processing. Public Health Nutr. Jan 2018;21(1):5-17. doi:10.1017/s1368980017000234
29. Millet GP, Giulianotti R. Sports and Active Living Are Medicine, and Education, Happiness, Performance, Business, Innovation, and Culture…for a Sustainable World. Front Sports Act Living. 2019;1:1. doi:10.3389/fspor.2019.00001
30. Germini F, Noronha N, Borg Debono V, et al. Accuracy and Acceptability of Wrist-Wearable Activity-Tracking Devices: Systematic Review of the Literature. J Med Internet Res. Jan 21 2022;24(1):e30791. doi:10.2196/30791
31. Finkelstein EA, Khavjou OA, Thompson H, et al. Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030. Am J Prev Med. Jun 2012;42(6):563-70. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.10.026
32. Koran-Scholl J, Geske J, Khandalavala KR, Khandalavala B. Teaching module for obesity bias education: incorporating comprehensive competencies and innovative techniques. BMC Med Educ. May 16 2023;23(1):340. doi:10.1186/s12909-023-04310-4
33. Rubino F, Puhl RM, Cummings DE, et al. Joint international consensus statement for ending stigma of obesity. Nat Med. Apr 2020;26(4):485-497. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0803-x
34. Gopalan A, Makelarski JA, Garibay LB, et al. Health-Specific Information and Communication Technology Use and Its Relationship to Obesity in High-Poverty, Urban Communities: Analysis of a Population-Based Biosocial Survey. J Med Internet Res. Jun 28 2016;18(6):e182. doi:10.2196/jmir.5741
35. Glass TA, Bilal U. Are neighborhoods causal? Complications arising from the 'stickiness' of ZNA. Soc Sci Med. Oct 2016;166:244-253. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.01.001
36. Reisch LA, Gwozdz W. [The impact of consumer behavior on the development of overweight children. An overview]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. Jul 2010;53(7):725-32. Einfluss des Konsumverhaltens auf die Entwicklung von Ubergewicht bei Kindern. Ein Uberblick. doi:10.1007/s00103-010-1077-0
37. Breda J, Farrugia Sant'Angelo V, Duleva V, et al. Mobilizing governments and society to combat obesity: Reflections on how data from the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative are helping to drive policy progress. Obes Rev. Nov 2021;22 Suppl 6:e13217. doi:10.1111/obr.13217
38. Fox A, Gardner G, Osborne S. A theoretical framework to support research of health service innovation. Aust Health Rev. Feb 2015;39(1):70-75. doi:10.1071/ah14031
39. Christensen CM. The opportunity and threat of disruptive technologies. Stanford Video; 2000.
40. Burford C, Laboratory USAR. Unified multimodal measurement for performance indication research, evaluation, and effectiveness (UMMPIREE) : phase 1 report. ARL-TR 8277. US Army Research Laboratory; 2018.
41. Ellis LW. Evaluation of R&D processes : effectiveness through measurements. The Artech House technology management and professional development library. Artech House; 1997:xvi, 257 pages : illustrations, graphs.
42. Hindin DI, Mazzei M, Chandragiri S, et al. A National Study on Training Innovation in US Medical Education. Cureus. Oct 2023;15(10):e46433. doi:10.7759/cureus.46433
43. Panisoara G, Predoiu R, Predoiu A, Piotrowski A. Editorial: Innovation in developmental psychology, education, sports, and arts: advances in research on individuals and groups. Front Psychol. 2023;14:1260109. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1260109
44. Johnston LM, Finegood DT. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector. Annu Rev Public Health. Mar 18 2015;36:255-71. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122802
45. Smith TW, Calancie L, Ammerman A. Social Entrepreneurship for Obesity Prevention: What Are the Opportunities? Curr Obes Rep. Sep 2015;4(3):311-8. doi:10.1007/s13679-015-0162-y
46. Hage G, Hage J. Organizational Innovation. 1st ed. Routledge Revivals Series. Taylor & Francis Group; 2018.
47. Berman G, Fox A, University Press Scholarship O. Gradual : the case for incremental change in a radical age. Oxford scholarship online. Oxford University Press; 2022.
48. Jayaratna N, Wood B. Every Innovation is a New Thing but not Every New Thing is an Innovation. Projectics. 2008;1:13-25. doi:DOI : 10.3917/proj.000.0013
49. Hayes J. The theory and practice of change management. Sixth edition. ed. Red Globe Press; 2022:xxxii, 456 pages : illustrations (black and white, and colour).
50. Schumpeter JA. Theory of economic development. Harvard University Press; 1961.
51. Backhaus JG, Backhaus JrG, Ebook Central All Subscribed T. Joseph Alois Schumpeter : entrepreneurship, style, and vision. 1st 2003. ed. The European heritage in economics and the social sciences v 1. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2003.
52. Rogers EM. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition. 5th ed. Free Press; 2003.
53. Hagedoorn J. The dynamic analysis of innovation and diffusion : a study in process control. Pinter Publishers; 1989:197 pages : illustrations.
54. Carayannis EG, Giudice MD, Peruta MRD, SpringerLink. Unpacking Open Innovation : Highlights from a Co-Evolutionary Inquiry. Palgrave Studies in Democracy, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship for Growth. Palgrave Macmillan US : Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.
55. Akinyemi O, University of Wales Trinity Saint D, Kumar R, Sha'ven WB. Development of a Change Management Framework to Enhance Business Model Innovation, which Improves Organizational Performance in the Nigeria Travel Sector. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses; 2021.
56. Lewin K. Group decision and Social Change. In: Maccoby EE, Newcomb TM, Hartley EL, eds. Readings in Social Psychology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston; 1958:197–211.
57. Grant MT, Northcentral University. School of B, Technology M, Settles T. Managing Change in IT Projects: Using Kotter's Eight Step Process to Examine Lewin's Unfreeze-Move-Refreeze Theory. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses; 2016.
58. Valente FVdOB, Universidade do P, Graca M. Bringing Dynamism into Dynamic Capabilities: Process, Practice and Critical Approaches. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses; 2021.
59. Curlee W, Gordon RL, Wiley Online L. Complexity theory and project management. Wiley; 2010.
60. Ferlie E. Resource based view: a promising new theory for healthcare organizations: Comment on "Resource based view of the firm as a theoretical lens on the organisational consequences of quality improvement". Int J Health Policy Manag. Nov 2014;3(6):347-8. doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2014.107
61. Burton CR, Rycroft-Malone J. Resource based view of the firm as a theoretical lens on the organisational consequences of quality improvement. Int J Health Policy Manag. Aug 2014;3(3):113-5. doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2014.74
62. Christensen CM. The innovator's prescription : a disruptive solution to the healthcare crisis. McGraw-Hill; 2008.
63. Hayes J. The theory and practice of change management. Sixth edition. ed. Red Globe Press; 2002:xxxii, 456 pages : illustrations (black and white, and colour).
64. Christensen CM. The innovator's dilemma : the revolutionary book that will change the way you do business. New . ed. HarperBusiness; 2011:xxxvii, 286 p. : ill.
65. Christensen CM, Ebscohost. The Clayton M. Christensen reader : selected articles from the world's foremost authority on disruptive innovation. Harvard Business Review Press; 2016.
66. Christensen CM, Grossman JH, Hwang J. Innovator's Prescription. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing; 2008.
67. Christensen CM, Johnson MW, Harvard Business S. What are business models, and how are they built? Rev. ed. Harvard Business School; 2016:11 pages : illustrations.
68. Zhang L, Li S, Wu M. Executive pharmaceutical background, R&D investment and corporate innovation performance. Am J Transl Res. 2023;15(11):6576-6586.
69. Zhang X, Quah CH, Nazri Bin Mohd Nor M. Deep neural network-based analysis of the impact of ambidextrous innovation and social networks on firm performance. Sci Rep. Jun 26 2023;13(1):10301. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-36920-9
70. Katz JS. What Is a Complex Innovation System? PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156150. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156150
71. Lemos SIC, Ferreira FAF, Zopounidis C, Galariotis E, Ferreira N. Artificial intelligence and change management in small and medium-sized enterprises: an analysis of dynamics within adaptation initiatives. Ann Oper Res. Dec 30 2022:1-27. doi:10.1007/s10479-022-05159-4
72. Johanna I, Daudeij A, Devina F, et al. Basics of advanced therapy medicinal product development in academic pharma and the role of a GMP simulation unit. Immunooncol Technol. Dec 2023;20:100411. doi:10.1016/j.iotech.2023.100411
73. Shah P, Snitman A, McCaney J, Rose LM, Sheridan D, Espinoza Salomon J. PMDedu: Assessing the educational needs of startups and academic investigators focused on pediatric medical device development. J Clin Transl Sci. 2023;7(1):e235. doi:10.1017/cts.2023.633
74. Varilek BM, Mollman S. Healthcare professionals' perspectives of barriers to cancer care delivery for American Indian, rural, and frontier populations. PEC Innov. Dec 2024;4:100247. doi:10.1016/j.pecinn.2023.100247
75. Amit RUoP, Zott C. Business Model Innovation Strategy : Transformational Concepts and Tools for Entrepreneurial Leaders. 1st ed. Wiley; 2020.
76. Sahin Y, Wang YL, Pei J, et al. Multiple Genomic Alterations, Including a Novel AFF4::IRF1 Fusion Gene, in a Treatment-Refractory Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic-Cell Neoplasm: A Case Report and Literature Review. Int J Mol Sci. Dec 25 2023;25(1)doi:10.3390/ijms25010305
77. Kotter JP, Heskett JL. Corporate culture and performance. Maxwell Macmillan International; 1992:viii, 214 p.
78. Singh M, Waddell D. E-business innovation and change management. IRM Press; 2004:ix, 283 p.
79. Teece D, Pisano G, Shuen A. Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management. Strategic Management Journal. 1997;18(7):509-533.
80. Endres H. Adaptability Through Dynamic Capabilities : How Management Can Recognize Opportunities and Threats. 1st ed. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden : Imprint: Springer Gabler,; 2018:1 online resource (XVII, 184 pages 12 illustrations).
81. Arteaga R, Hyland J, O'Connor G, Peters L, Ebook Central All Subscribed T. Pivot : how top entrepreneurs adapt and change course to find ultimate success. 1st edition ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
82. Foss NJ. Strategy, economic organization, and the knowledge economy : the coordination of firms and resources. Oxford University Press; 2005:ix, 281 p.
83. Wapshott R. The role of the resource-based view in strategic human resource management research. Dissertations. 2004.
84. Levine JA, Stemitsiotis C. De-risking rare disease acquisitions: a win-win-win for patients, biotech and investors. Nat Rev Drug Discov. Jan 2024;23(1):10-11. doi:10.1038/d41573-023-00190-x
85. Nelson RR, Winter SG. In search of useful theory of innovation. Research Policy. 1977;6:36-76.
86. Telser LG. A Theory of Innovation and Its Effects. The Bell Journal of Economics. 1982;13(1):69-92. doi:10.2307/3003431
87. Mrklas KJ, Boyd JM, Shergill S, et al. A scoping review of the globally available tools for assessing health research partnership outcomes and impacts. Health Res Policy Syst. Dec 22 2023;21(1):139. doi:10.1186/s12961-023-00958-y
88. Segre JA. What does it take to satisfy Koch's postulates two centuries later? Microbial genomics and Propionibacteria acnes. J Invest Dermatol. Sep 2013;133(9):2141-2. doi:10.1038/jid.2013.260
89. Timell F. Innovation and Venture Capital - A minor case study on the Swedish venture capital industry’s effect on innovation. 2013.
90. Johnston AE, Poulton PR. The importance of long-term experiments in agriculture: their management to ensure continued crop production and soil fertility; the Rothamsted experience. Eur J Soil Sci. Jan 2018;69(1):113-125. doi:10.1111/ejss.12521
91. Kanze D, Conley MA, Okimoto TG, Phillips DJ, Merluzzi J. Evidence that investors penalize female founders for lack of industry fit. Sci Adv. Nov 2020;6(48)doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd7664
92. Musharoff S, Shringarpure S, Bustamante CD, Ramachandran S. The inference of sex-biased human demography from whole-genome data. PLoS Genet. Sep 2019;15(9):e1008293. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008293
93. Lyons-Padilla S, Markus HR, Monk A, et al. Race influences professional investors' financial judgments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 27 2019;116(35):17225-17230. doi:10.1073/pnas.1822052116
94. Tinkler JE, Bunker Whittington K, Ku MC, Davies AR. Gender and venture capital decision-making: the effects of technical background and social capital on entrepreneurial evaluations. Soc Sci Res. May 2015;51:1-16. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.12.008
95. Hu H, Du Y, Wang Z. Linking Entrepreneurs' Felt Responsibility to Ventures' Innovation Performance: The Roles of External Learning and Shared Vision. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2023;16:3045-3060. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S414119
96. Kopia J, SpringerLink. Effective Implementation of Management Systems : Management Systems as a Success Factor for the Efficiency of Organizations. 1st 2019. ed. Sustainable Management, Wertschöpfung und Effizienz. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden : Imprint: Springer Gabler; 2019.
97. Wisdom JP, Chor KH, Hoagwood KE, Horwitz SM. Innovation adoption: a review of theories and constructs. Adm Policy Ment Health. Jul 2014;41(4):480-502. doi:10.1007/s10488-013-0486-4
98. Link AN. The economic theory of invention and innovation. International library of critical writings in economics 215. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; 2008.
99. Gilmartin MJ. Creativity: the fuel of innovation. Nurs Adm Q. Winter 1999;23(2):1-8. doi:10.1097/00006216-199901000-00003
100. De Bono E. Lateral thinking for management: a handbook. Pelican books. Penguin Books
Penguin; 1982:188 pages : illustrations.
101. Kanopy. Steve Jobs : the way Steve Jobs changed the world. Kanopy Streaming; 2014.
102. Johnstone C, Pairaudeau G, Pettersson JA. Creativity, innovation and lean sigma: a controversial combination? Drug Discov Today. Jan 2011;16(1-2):50-7. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2010.11.005
103. Adams DJ, Beniston LJ, Childs PR. Promoting creativity and innovation in biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol. Aug 2009;27(8):445-7. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2009.05.001
104. Soto AM, Sonnenschein C. Reductionism, Organicism, and Causality in the Biomedical Sciences: A Critique. Perspect Biol Med. 2018;61(4):489-502. doi:10.1353/pbm.2018.0059
105. DeMaria EJ. A strategic SWOT analysis of ASMBS and our specialty with implications for our future. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Dec 2020;16(12):1885-1892. doi:10.1016/j.soard.2020.08.003
106. Niknam M, Omidvar N, Amiri P, Eini-Zinab H, Kalantari N. The Action Plan and Strategy Development for the Community Readiness Improvement for Tackling Childhood Obesity (CRITCO) Study. Int J Endocrinol Metab. Jan 2022;20(1):e111371. doi:10.5812/ijem.111371
107. Israel BA, Coombe CM, Cheezum RR, et al. Community-based participatory research: a capacity-building approach for policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities. Am J Public Health. Nov 100(11):2094-102.
108. Reininger BM, Barroso CS, Mitchell-Bennett L, et al. Process evaluation and participatory methods in an obesity-prevention media campaign for Mexican Americans. Health Promot Pract. May 2010;11(3):347-57. doi:10.1177/1524839908321486
109. Bass BM, Bass BM, Avolio BJ. Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Sage; 1994:x, 238 p : ill.
110. Blane H, ProQuest. 7 principles of transformational leadership : create a mindset of passion, innovation, and growth. 1st edition ed. Career Press; 2017.
111. Yücel Karamustafa E. EQ & transactional and transformational leadership styles : the relationship between EQ & transformational- transactional leadership styles and moderating role of gender. 1. Auflage, neue Ausgabe ed. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2016:136 pages.
112. Heffron JM, Morgan L. Transactional leadership : the case of Lara Morgan. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2020. https://suprimo.lib.strath.ac.uk/openurl/SU/SUVU01?u.ignore_date_coverage=true&rft.mms_id=9913226291202996
113. Heifetz RA, Grashow A, Linsky M, Ebscohost. The practice of adaptive leadership : tools and tactics for changing your organization and the world. Harvard Business Press; 2009.
114. Kuluski K, Reid RJ, Baker GR. Applying the principles of adaptive leadership to person-centred care for people with complex care needs: Considerations for care providers, patients, caregivers and organizations. Health Expect. Apr 2021;24(2):175-181. doi:10.1111/hex.13174
115. Collaborative leadership : six influences that matter most. Corwin, a SAGE Company; 2017. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/bcu/detail.action?docID=6261656
116. Greenleaf RK. The trustee and the risks of persuasive leadership. Hosp Prog. May 1978;59(5):50-2, 88.
117. Krukowski RA, Denton AH, König LM. Impact of feedback generation and presentation on self-monitoring behaviors, dietary intake, physical activity, and weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. Jan 4 2024;21(1):3. doi:10.1186/s12966-023-01555-6
118. Ye P, Liu L, Tan J. Influence of leadership empowering behavior on employee innovation behavior: The moderating effect of personal development support. Front Psychol. 2022;13:1022377. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1022377
119. Johnston MW, Marshall GW. Sales force management : leadership, innovation, technology. Twelfth edition. ed. Routledge; 2016.
120. Fadell T. Build : an unorthodox guide to making things worth making. First edition. ed. Harper Business; 2022:xx, 394 pages : illustrations.
121. Conger JA, Kanungo RN. Charismatic leadership. 1st ed. The Jossey-Bass management series. Jossey-Bass; 1988.
122. Conger JAA, Kanungo RNN. Charismatic Leadership in Organizations. SAGE Publications; 1998.
123. Leithwood KA, Mascall B, Strauss T, Coutts Information S. Distributed leadership according to the evidence. Routledge; 2009.
124. DeFlaminis JA, Abdul-Jabbar M, Yoak E. Distributed Leadership in Schools : a Practical Guide for Learning and Improvement. Eye On Education Book. Taylor and Francis Ltd; 2016.
125. Cross C, Carbery R, Carbery R. Organisational behaviour. Red Globe; 2022.
126. Christie R, Christie R, Jahoda M. Studies in the scope and method of "The Authoritarian personality". Continuities in social research 2. Free Press; 1954:279 pages : illustrations.
127. Svolik MW. The politics of authoritarian rule. Cambridge studies in comparative politics. Cambridge University Press; 2012.
128. Stoll JD, Dawson C. Famed Auto Executive Lee Iacocca Dies at 94. Wall Street Journal. Accessed Jan 18, 2024. https://www.wsj.com/articles/famed-auto-executive-lee-iacocca-dies-at-94-11562119111
129. Dearlove D. Business the Bill Gates way : 10 secrets of the world?s richest business leader. 3rd ed. Wiley; 2010.
130. Rocco M. Your leadership lens : understanding, challenging and broadening our perspectives on leadership. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2020. https://suprimo.lib.strath.ac.uk/openurl/SU/SUVU01?u.ignore_date_coverage=true&rft.mms_id=9913226285902996
131. Filippouli E, Bloomsbury. From women to the world : letters for the female century. First edition. ed. Bloomsbury Publishing; 2021.
132. Goleman D. Leadership That Gets Results (Harvard Business Review Classics). Harvard Business Review Classics. Harvard Business Review Press; 2017.
133. Barron J. The visual MBA : a quick guide to everything you'll learn in two years of business school. Penguin Business; 2019:x, 193 pages : color illustrations.
134. Kiel F. Return on Character. Harvard Business Review Press; 2015.
135. Kouzes JM, Pozner BZ. The leadership challenge. 5th ed. Jossey-Bass; 2012.
136. Song Z, Li WD, Jin X, et al. Genetics, leadership position, and well-being: An investigation with a large-scale GWAS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Mar 22 2022;119(12):e2114271119. doi:10.1073/pnas.2114271119
137. Zhou X, Sun X, Wang Z, Jiang T. Association between conscientiousness and team emotional intelligence: A moderated mediation model. Medicine (Baltimore). Oct 21 2022;101(42):e31001. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000031001
138. Bornman J, Louw B. Leadership Development Strategies in Interprofessional Healthcare Collaboration: A Rapid Review. J Healthc Leadersh. 2023;15:175-192. doi:10.2147/jhl.S405983
139. Gill R, Ebscohost. Theory and practice of leadership. Second edition. ed. Supplementary textbook. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2011.
140. Marti Ripoll M, Gil Rodriguez F, Barrasa A, Antino M. Leadership in entrepreneurial organizations: context and motives. Psicothema. Nov 2010;22(4):880-6.
141. Kumanyika SK. A question of competing rights, priorities, and principles: a postscript to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation symposium on the ethics of childhood obesity policy. Prev Chronic Dis. Sep 2011;8(5):A97.
142. Fruh SM, Nadglowski J, Hall HR, Davis SL, Crook ED, Zlomke K. Obesity Stigma and Bias. J Nurse Pract. Jul-Aug 2016;12(7):425-432. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.05.013
143. Lankford T, Lang J, Bowden B, Baun W. Workplace health: engaging business leaders to combat obesity. J Law Med Ethics. Winter 2013;41 Suppl 2:40-5. doi:10.1111/jlme.12108
144. Braasch WF. Early days in the Mayo Clinic. Thomas; 1969:viii, 142 p.
145. Sacoto D, Hurtado MD, Acosta A. Precision Medicine and Obesity. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2022;274:467-485. doi:10.1007/164_2021_566
146. Hurtado AM, Acosta A. Precision Medicine and Obesity. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. Mar 2021;50(1):127-139. doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2020.10.005
147. Newton A, Lloyd-Williams F, Bromley H, Capewell S. Food for thought? Potential conflicts of interest in academic experts advising government and charities on dietary policies. BMC Public Health. Aug 5 2016;16:735. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3393-2
148. Weir MR. Leadership message: government and corporate responsibility to work with academia about the obesity epidemic. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). Mar 2011;13(3):217-8. doi:10.1111/j.1751-7176.2011.00426.x
149. Lusk JL. Economics and obesity policy. Int J Obes (Lond). Jun 2017;41(6):831-834. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.5
150. Roberts GE, SpringerLink. The Palgrave Handbook of Servant Leadership. 1st 2023. ed. Springer International Publishing : Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan; 2023.
151. Trastek VF, Hamilton NW, Niles EE. Leadership models in health care - a case for servant leadership. Mayo Clin Proc. Mar 2014;89(3):374-81. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.10.012
152. Chandler RC. Anticipatory foresight and adaptive decision-making as a crucial characteristic for business continuity, crisis and emergency leadership. J Bus Contin Emer Plan. Jan 1 2022;15(3):255-269.
153. Trenerry B, Chng S, Wang Y, et al. Preparing Workplaces for Digital Transformation: An Integrative Review and Framework of Multi-Level Factors. Front Psychol. 2021;12:620766. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.620766
154. Bray GA, Ryan DH. Evidence-based weight loss interventions: Individualized treatment options to maximize patient outcomes. Diabetes Obes Metab. Feb 2021;23 Suppl 1:50-62. doi:10.1111/dom.14200