Current Vaccine and Efficacy of COVID-19 in Latin America: Challenges and need for updated public health policy

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Marco Villanueva Reza Sebastián Rodríguez-Llamazares Alvaro López Iñiguez Santiago Montiel Romero Arturo Galindo Fraga


In Latin America, the COVID-19 pandemic, which initially surged and is now a constant presence, has brought about significant health challenges due to disparities and differences in regional responses. Vaccination is not only a necessity but also a responsibility as the primary tool for prevention. However, its implementation has not been consistent across countries, leading to various challenges such as global demand, initial high costs, infrastructure limitations for distribution, public hesitance, and misinformation. Other issues, like vaccine efficacy in immunocompromised patients and the use of different vaccines, were initially questioned but are now regarded as strategies to protect patients. This region, with its unique traditions, also faces several risk factors including vaccine supply shortages, lack of vaccine manufacturing, overcrowded cities, and an increasing migrant population that adds to the vulnerability of the people, challenging countries to strive for equity in prevention strategies. It is important to address individual strategies in communities to increase vaccine uptake as part of public health policy, and collaboration between countries should be encouraged to reach more people. This review will provide information about the COVID-19 vaccines available in the region, their characteristics and composition, their use across countries, and the reported effectiveness in the general population and among those with weakened immune systems.

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REZA, Marco Villanueva et al. Current Vaccine and Efficacy of COVID-19 in Latin America: Challenges and need for updated public health policy. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 6, june 2024. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 july 2024. doi:
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