A review of selected bee products as potential anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral agents

Main Article Content

Helen , Louise Brown Aled Edward Lloyd Roberts Rose Cooper Rowena Eleri Jenkins


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest medical challenges the world faces. It was estimated recently that by 2050, AMR will account for 10 million extra deaths annually with additional economic costs in the region of $100 trillion.  In order to combat this, novel antimicrobial agents with a broad spectrum of activity are required.  Bee products, including; honey, propolis, defensins, royal jelly, bee pollen and venom have been used to treat infectious diseases for several centuries, although they were largely disregarded by Western medicine during the antibiotic era. There has since been a resurgence in interest in their antimicrobial properties, especially due to their reported activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens displaying high levels of AMR. In this paper we review the current scientific literature of honey, propolis, honey bee, defensins, royal jelly, bee pollen and bee venom. We highlight the antimicrobial activity each of these products has displayed and potential future research directions.

Article Details

How to Cite
BROWN, Helen , Louise et al. A review of selected bee products as potential anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral agents. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 8, dec. 2016. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/887>. Date accessed: 16 july 2024.
Honey, propolis, bee venom, defensins, antimicrobial, antimicrobial resistance, bee products, royal jelly
Review Articles


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