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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global public health problem with increasing incidence worldwide and an overall prevalence of approximately 10% to 15% of the general population. Early detection, appropriate risk stratification and treatment may delay or prevent the complications of CKD such as cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and early mortality.
We review here the existing recommendations and considerations in the design of screening and detection programs for CKD. While these programs may be cost effective in specific high risk populations, pitfalls remain in the broad application of screening programs in terms of labeling of disease, excessive costs and risks of treatment in low risk patients. Efforts must continue to evaluate and refine evidence-based targeted screening programs to reduce the global burden of CKD and improve health outcomes for this emerging public health problem.
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